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Wilfred Gilmour Reive 


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L,/tVO | 

Presented to the 

LIBRARY of the 







Society Recollections 


An English Officer 







Copyright by John Long, 1908 
All Rights Reserved 



PAVILION . . , . 9 








BEAUTY . 121 




CASINO THE ROSE . .- . . . 213 

VIEW OF ITALY . . . . 237 








GALLI MARIE MDLLE. SESSI . . . Frontispiece 



THEATRE . . . . . . .32 




OF AUSTRIA AT HOME . . . . .64 

TYROLESE SINGERS . . . . . .80 

BEAUTIFUL MIZZI . . . . . -94 

BOATS . . . . . . .112 




STEYER ....... 160 


TUME ....... 194 

List of Illustrations 







BERGER ....... 238 

BEHIND THE SCENES . . . . . .256 




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MY recollections of Homburg date from my early 
childhood, for I can remember living with my 
parents in a house called Sauer's Haus, in the Unter 
Promenade, the first floor of which was let to the Princess 
Liegnitz, who resided there with eighteen servants and 
her pretty daughter, the Princess Brandenburg. The 
old Emperor William, then King of Prussia, used always 
to visit the Princess, who was his brother's widow (the 
marriage was a morganatic one), and would very often 
on meeting me with my nurse kiss and give me bonbons, 
while the Princess once presented me with a beautiful 
box of toys filled with all kinds of animals, which had 
been sent expressly from Berlin. In return my father 


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made me present the lady with a lovely bouquet of roses, 
for which she gave me a kiss such are some of the 
privileges of childhood. 

The villa we lived in faced some charming grounds 
and had a large garden at the back, while the rooms were 
comfortable, without being luxurious. The Princess 
occupied the whole first floor, which had a balcony 
attached to it, while we had the ground floor and also 
rooms on the second floor. 

My parents rarely dined at home, taking their dinner 
of an evening at the Kursaal, while the rest of the family 
had their meals in the house with the nurse and ladies' 
maid. My mother had many friends at Homburg, 
including the Countess Desart (lady-in-waiting to Queen 
Victoria), who kept a staff of English servants at her 
villa, as well as a French chef, and my parents would 
frequently dine with the Countess at the Kursaal, where 
the dinner was provided by Mme. Chevet, of the Palais 
Royal, from Paris, who came for the season and took 
the restaurant at the Kursaal, the food being excellent, 
but very dear indeed. A fine orchestra, called the Kur 
Kapelle, played out in the gardens, and was provided 
by the town, but really paid for by M. Blanc, the owner 
of the gambling rooms. 


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At that time gambling at trente et quarante and roulette 
took place in the magnificent rooms, and there was one 
apartment, which still retains its old name of the gold 
room, the walls of which were ornamented with gold 
arabesque designs, where one was only allowed to play 
with gold or notes. 

Once a fortnight a splendid band, consisting of eighty 
performers, from an Austrian infantry regiment, played 
in the Kursaal grounds, the men wearing a showy uniform 
of white, with pink facings, and blue trousers, while 
the conductor was the celebrated Jeschko, a good-looking 
man with a fair moustache. 

A Prussian military band also played once a week, 
but it was very inferior, and the conductor was 
a stout man, who wore a blue uniform with gold 
epaulettes, the fringe of which shook when he waved 
his baton. 

The Kur Kapelle always played of an evening in the 
fine gardens of the Kursaal, when all the English and 
other visitors sat out on the terrace drinking their coffee, 
and on Sunday the lawns were crowded after church 
service ; while on some evenings, not unfrequently 
Sunday, there were very fine fireworks. 

I might mention here that the Austrian military band 


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was far and away in front of those of any other nation, 
and among the pieces they performed were the Radetzky 
March and " Cheer, Boys, Cheer," then favourite airs. 

My brother and I at that time were dressed in white 
embroidered frocks, with a pink sash tied round the 
waist and hanging loosely behind, while our hair was 
worn long, my dark brown locks being curled like a 

Speaking of the gambling, I may here remark that 
one evening my mother thought she would try her luck 
at the tables, and, after staking several 5 fr. pieces, 
which she lost, happened to put one on zero, and then 
commenced to talk to the Marquis of Headfort, who 
was standing by her side. Engrossed hi conversation, 
she did not notice that zero had turned up till the Marquis 
suddenly exclaimed, " I think you have won ! " But 
before my mother could claim the money the wheel went 
round again with thirty-five 5 fr. pieces on zero, which 
she had won. My mother was rather annoyed, and not 
a little excited ; but the wheel went slowly round, and, 
to everybody's amazement, zero came up again, so my 
parent won thirty-five times thirty-five 5 fr. pieces that 
is to say, 6125 fr. by a pure stroke of luck. 

One day Goldschmidt, a Jew banker, gave my father 


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16,000 fr. in paper money to change for him at the tables 
into gold, as the inhabitants of Homburg were not 
allowed to enter the gambling room. The banker stood 
at the door and watched my father changing the notes, 
but what was his horror to see my paternal parent, after 
he had received the money, suddenly put it all down on 
red and impair at the roulette table. The wheel whirled 
round, and the ball fell, luckily for my father, into red, 
while impair came up as well, so that the lucky player 
won with the banker's money 16,000 fr., returning the 
other 16,000 fr. to Goldschmidt. Such days of good luck, 
however, were few and far between, and my father lost 
tremendously on the whole, so much so that he made 
several vows he would never play again, which resolu- 
tions he kept till the next time, which in his case was 
generally the day after. 

One year my parents, instead of staying at Homburg, 
went to Frankfort-on-the-Main, and visited the former 
place every day. We stayed at the Hotel de Russie, 
where the King of Prussia (afterwards Emperor William 
of Germany) used also to reside ; but the post office has 
now been erected on the old site. The rooms were fine, 
and our salon was very large, the walls being decorated 
with pictures of ancient Greek history. There was one 


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representing the capture of Troy, with the Greek soldiers 
coming out of the large wooden horse, and the town in 
flames ; another of the Cyclops, each with his eye in 
the middle of his forehead, and another of Venus and 

A Captain Berkeley (afterwards the Earl of Berkeley) 
and his wife were also staying at this time at the hotel, 
and he lost all his money at the Homburg tables, so 
begged a banker friend to lend him 2000 florins, which 
the latter refused to do, but gave him a ticket for a 
Frankfort lottery, which B. took, not wishing to offend. 
When the draw took place B. won, to his great surprise, 
72,000 florins, and in commemoration thereof gave a 
supper party to all the members of the English colony, 
which piece of hospitality cost him 2000 florins, the 
remainder being lost within the next six months at 

There used to be a turnpike-gate between Frankfort 
and Homburg, and a man or woman would put out a 
long wooden spoon through a hole in a window, which 
spoon extended to the carriage in the road, so that 
travellers could drop the toll money into the receptacle, 
and, if necessary, receive their change by the same 
means, the turnpike people in this way being saved the 


3 o 

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inconvenience of getting out of bed in the middle of the 

Captain Fred Dorrien, of the Life Guards, was also stay- 
ing at the Hotel de Russie, but he was generally at Hom- 
burg, and I remember a curious incident regarding a friend 
of his who played a good deal, and lost, as a matter of 
course. One day D. went with him to a banker's, when 
the conversation, which dealt with money matters, was 
carried on in German, the party afterwards sitting down 
to dinner at the Kursaal. D. told his friend that, as he 
spoke German so well, he might order dinner ; but, to 
his surprise, his friend replied that he could only talk 
about money matters in German, and that he had never 
learnt anything else in that language. D. had lost 
nearly 30,000 at Homburg, and was endeavouring to 
retrieve his losses, but he did not make much progress, 
and, indeed, the generality of players ended by losing, 
except, perhaps, some millionaires, who had sufficient 
capital to break the bank occasionally. Some very rich 
men, indeed, were even offered money to keep away from 
the gambling tables in those days by the bank. 

For instance, there was a Russian who played for a 
bank in St. Petersburg, and who often broke the one at 
Homburg ; he was offered large sums if he would desist, 

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while Captain Berkeley also broke the bank, but finally 
lost more than he had won. 

The drives about Homburg in the woods are very 
pretty, and there is a favourite one to some ruins, where 
people can adjourn to a caf6, picturesquely situated 
among the trees, and from which a delightful view can 
be obtained. The walks are also charming, and the 
present-day evening fetes exceedingly fine, while a 
German military band plays out of doors in the Kur- 
garten, though it does not perform as well as the Austrian 
band mentioned above. 

A few years ago I went to Homburg, and found all 
the hotels were full, as the present Emperor William 
of Germany was expected the following day ; but I 
stayed in a villa in the Kaiserin Friedrich Augusta 
Promenade, and dined on the terrace at the Kursaal, 
the dinner being fairly good, but very expensive. I was 
accompanied by a young Austrian girl and an English 
lady, and the former was very much amused with the 
German spoken, while the stiffness of the English and 
German visitors was not at all to her taste ; indeed, 
she exclaimed, "If all Germans and English people are 
like those I see about me, I am sure both countries must 
be dreadful to live in, for they never smile or laugh." 


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Every evening we went to the Kursalon, and sat out 
on the terrace in the cool of the evening listening to 
the band, while many of the visitors would promenade 
or sit about on the terrace in very smart evening dress. 

Of a Thursday evening there was always a reunion 
at half-past eight in the evening, to which I usually went, 
everybody having to wear evening dress. The dancing 
took place in the above-mentioned gold room, which was 
all in gold and white, with pillars of porphyry, the 
company mostly consisting of Americans and English 
with a sprinkling of Germans. My little Viennese 
friend was not impressed with the dancing, remarking 
that only the Americans knew how to waltz well, but 
some English ladies noticed how beautifully she herself 
waltzed, the step she danced, a Viennese six-step waltz, 
being quite unknown at Homburg. 

Sometimes of an evening when there was no dancing 
I went into other rooms, where the petits chevaux was 
played, and here my two friends won a very pretty 
writing-case in russia leather. At other times I would 
go to watch the lawn tennis, which was generally interest- 
ing, and when the international tournament was in 
progress I went every day. Miss T. Lowther excited 
the curiosity of everybody by the way she played, beat- 
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ing all the ladies and most of the men opposed to her, 
while Mr. Ritchie won the principal prize for gentlemen. 
A young Belgian told me that he played for Germany, 
but that the Germans were very inferior lawn tennis 
players, and were always beaten by the English. 

The Crown Prince of Germany played one day on 
the ground, but, of course, did not take any part in the 
tournament, while several other members of that family 
were also present on various occasions. 

I accompanied my two companions one day to the 
croquet ground, but we were told it was private, the 
secretary, however, on my approaching him, very kindly 
allowing us to remain. He showed us a good many 
kindnesses, and took us over the pavilion which had 
been built expressly for King Edward VII when he 
should come to Homburg and wish to see the croquet. 

The Colonel took a fancy to my little Austrian friend, 
asking her and the English lady if they would like to 
play, when the former answered that she would rather 
learn lawn tennis ; whereupon the secretary said that 
she should be taught every day by a man who gave 
lessons, and in the end she played fairly well. 

One day I spoke to the owner of the restaurant at 
the Kursaal, asking him whether he remembered Hom- 


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burg in the gambling days. He replied that he had 
lived at the place all his life. Whereupon I asked him 
whether the English who came there now were any 
different from the former visitors. In reply he remarked 
that in those days very wealthy English dined at the 
Kursaal, and did not mind what amount of money they 
spent on a good meal, while there were besides a number 
of the young nobility of both sexes, whereas now all the 
wealthy and aristocratic people were mostly old, and 
there were more English men than ladies. Again, the 
English who visited Homburg to-day were there prin- 
cipally for the cure, and not for pleasure only, as was the 
case formerly. 

I found the heat very great during the summer months, 
as there is no shade in the streets, and one has to walk 
some distance to reach the woods, where afternoon 
coffee is partaken of in the open air, for, apart from 
croquet and lawn tennis, there is no afternoon amuse- 
ment going on. I thought Homburg more like an 
English country town in its general appearance, and the 
shopkeepers all speak English, while my experience is 
that German people avoid the place on account of the 
expense, or, if they go, stay a very short time indeed. 

In the evening there are certainly some very pretty 


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English and American girls to be seen on the Kursaal 
terrace, and as a rule they are beautifully dressed. In 
my opinion an English girl looks her best when she is 
in evening dress, with Louis XV shoes and stockings 
d jour peeping out under a jupon embroidered with 
Valenciennes lace, and with short sleeves showing her 
arms, which are usually beautifully shaped ; but the 
too often passionless, inanimate expression detracted 
at Homburg from the general effect. 

On one occasion, when there were illuminations and 
fireworks, the ballet came from the theatre at Mannheim 
to dance on the lawn in front of the Kursalon. The 
fireworks were very fine, and the illuminations beautiful, 
the gaslights being artistically varied by means of red, 
green, and white globes. One could almost fancy one 
was in fairyland, for besides the gas jets there were 
hundreds of different - coloured waxlights placed upon 
the grass. My two lady friends and I went on the terrace 
to witness the ballet (for which a platform had been 
constructed) ; at the back an immense fountain was to 
be seen playing. While the water descended it seemed 
as if a perfect shower of diamonds was pouring down 
glittering and sparkling, and on the limelight being 
reflected on this beautiful design the water was con- 


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verted into a shower of rubies, emeralds, and sapphires, 
the effect being absolutely marvellous. The pretty 
danseuses, dressed in their stiff white muslin ballet 
skirts, dancing on their points, looked like elves suddenly 
appearing at midnight as if by enchantment upon the 
scene ; then when they had disappeared a fine display 
of fireworks was let off, covering the whole space with 
the most brilliant colours imaginable. 




I FIRST went to Bonn in the summer months, some 
time after I had left Eton, and I stayed at the 
Hotel Rheineck, which is situated on the Rhine. The 
large veranda of the hotel in which the people usually 
took their breakfast and afternoon coffee was near the 
place where the steamboats stopped, and it was very 
amusing to watch the passengers landing. 

From this veranda one had a charming view on the 
Rhine, and of the seven mountains, the Drachenfels 
among the number. It was delightful to sit of an after- 
noon on this veranda taking one's coffee, and to look at 
the mountains on the opposite bank of the river covered 
with verdure, and also to watch the coming and going 
of the steamboats filled with passengers. The Rhine 
appeared to me to be of a greenish-blue colour, and the 

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current to be very strong indeed ; few small boats are 
to be seen, which is unlike our Thames in this respect, 
and this, I imagine, is due to the very rapid current. 

There are exceedingly pretty villas covered with 
Virginia creepers and vine leaves ; the gardens just 
outside Bonn on the Coblentzer Strasse lead down to 
the Rhine. The villas are inhabited chiefly by wealthy 
people, as a German's ideal in life is to have a " Landhaus 
am Rhein," which happens to be the title of Berthold 
Auerbach's famous novel, a book that is still read a 
good deal in Germany, and was written by the author 
in a house in Bonn at which I lived afterwards. For 
any one reading German I can highly recommend this 
novel. Though it is an old one, it gives you about the 
best description of German life on the Rhine of any book 
I know. 

As I had the intention of attending the lectures at the 
Bonn University I was introduced by Professor Binz, 
who had married an English lady (the sister of General 
Salis Schwabe), to Professor Dr. Andra of the University, 
at whose house I afterwards lived. It was here that 
the famous Auerbach wrote the novel. The house was 
situated in the Maarflachweg. The Professor was an 
old man ; he had a young daughter and a son. 


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Excellenz von Dechen, formerly minister of the 
Rhenish provinces, told me that Andra might have been 
in Bismarck's position, but he was far too honourable a 
man to give up his views, and therefore he remained on 
as a professor at the University. Andra knew Bismarck 
personally, and said that before the war of 1870 he 
never thought much of him. Since then he had been 
sure that Bismarck was a man of very great capacity. 
Bismarck disliked Andra for his views on politics, which 
were very liberal, and the latter had some difficulty even 
in remaining on as professor of the Bonn University. 

Andra's daughter was a pretty girl of seventeen, whose 
Christian name was Margarethe, and she was called 
Gretchen. She was blonde and had blue eyes, but her 
teeth rather spoilt her appearance, though she had 
magnificent hair. This young lady had a girl friend, 
Fraulein Irma von Neufville, who was also fair, and 
considered among the Germans to be the " belle " of 
Bonn. Sometimes I walked in the town with the latter, 
though it was not thought the correct thing to do in 
Germany, where they are very strict indeed in this 
respect. I met her occasionally quite by accident, and 
we walked out in the country. 

Fraulein Marie Weber, another girl friend of Fraulein 

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Andra's, was engaged to be married to her uncle. I 
tried at times to make her forget him, but she always 
wore an engagement ring, which was a wedding ring, 
on her right hand, to be transferred to her left when she 
was married. It is a very common thing in Germany 
for an uncle to marry his niece. 

In the winter at Bonn several balls were given, to 
which the English colony, as well as the Germans, went, 
and the officers of the King's Hussars stationed at Bonn 
also were well represented. I knew the English residents 
as well as the Germans, and was asked to get up a 
bachelors' ball at the Hotel Rheineck, where I had 
formerly stopped. The ball took place and turned out 
a great success. The officers of the King's Hussars 
came in great force, and dancing was kept up till five 
o'clock in the morning. 

The custom in Germany is that when you are invited 
to a ball you have to pay for your own supper, but no 
entrance fee ; the other expenses are paid by those 
giving the ball. The " belle " at this particular ball 
was an English girl, the daughter of a former captain in 
the army, and afterwards she married a baron, a lieu- 
tenant in the Prussian King's Hussars, stationed at 

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There was a good deal of jealousy between the English 
and German beauties at Bonn, but the former were to 
my mind the prettier of the two. The prettiest German 
girl was the one I have already alluded to, Fraulein 
Irma von Neufville, the daughter of a baron ; she was 
certainly very pretty, and yet she could not compare 
with the English " belle," who had far finer eyes, and a 
much more striking appearance. 

I went to a masked ball during carnival at Bonn, at 
which I wore a white domino. I had not been in the 
room long before a young girl dressed in a fancy costume 
and masked came up to me, and mistaking me for some 
one else made violent love to me. It made me feel very 
happy for a time, but when I called to mind that she 
was mistaking me for some one else, my pleasure vanished. 
I was very curious to see her unmask, but she kept 
telling me that I knew her so well it was quite unnecessary. 
Later in the night an American friend of mine came to 
the ball, also in a white fancy costume, and then I dis- 
covered that it was my friend whom she mistook me for. 
This young American informed me that the girl was 
quite the prettiest girl at Bonn, but not in the leading 
society, though she belonged to a very respectable 
tradesman's family. The brother of this American, 


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who was studying at the University, fought so many 
duels, knocking about the students to such an extent, 
that he was at last told to leave the country by the 
Prussian Government. At this masked ball, the elder 
American got into a dispute with some German students, 
and they ended by throwing plates at one another till 
everybody left the room. 

The regiment at Bonn, the King's Hussars, was 
commanded by Prince Reuss XXVII, and all the officers 
were of the highest aristocracy, there being no less than 
seven princes serving under the Colonel. Count Bern- 
storff told me that if an officer of the Foot Guards were 
to come into a restaurant where he was dining, he, as an 
officer of the King's Hussars, would at once leave the 
room, as he did not consider that an officer of the Prussian 
Foot Guards was on a par with an officer of the King's 
Hussars. Count Bernstorff was then Porte 6pee Fahn- 
rich in the King's Hussars, which was below the rank of 
lieutenant, but he was expecting to be promoted. One 
day he was seen in Cologne going into an inn, and 
not being in uniform he was placed for a week under 

The elder American used to go to a corps students' 
" Kneipe " of an evening, and once he made a bet that 

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he would drink twenty-eight glasses of beer at one sitting, 
which he actually did, thus winning his bet. 

The carnival at Cologne is quite celebrated. I went 
one day, and the room of the " Giirzenich " was filled 
with over four thousand masked people ; the students 
wore blouses, like working men ; they were masked and 
wore white kid gloves. The procession in the daytime 
was very fine ; the troops in Cologne, especially the 
different bands of the regiments, took part, and were 
disguised in some fancy dress. The cavalry, which was 
represented, was in costume of red and white pierrots, all 
being mounted. A great deal of confetti is thrown on 
this occasion. The carnival lasts three days, both at 
Cologne and Bonn, but it is very much finer at Cologne, 
where everybody who goes out in the streets on those 
days is masked. I consider that the carnival at Cologne 
is quite one of the finest in Europe, and I have seen 
nearly all the carnivals that are worth seeing. I have 
been many a time to Cologne in recent years. I usually 
stay at the Hotel du Nord, which is the favourite hotel 
of a German baroness I know very well, who stays there 
often for the whole winter en pension. The baroness, 
in her younger days, had the good fortune to be painted 
by Makart, and also by Franz von Lenbach, two of the 


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greatest artists of modern times. She was a very great 
friend of the well-known Lady Holland, of Holland 
House, and often would read Lady Holland's letters to 
me ; they were very charming and all written in French. 

The Dom at Cologne is the highest cathedral in the 
world, the towers being five hundred and twelve feet 
in height. A lawyer from Taunton told me that 
he was walking about admiring the various windows 
this year inside the Dom when a beadle came up to 
him with a staff in his hand, and said, " ' Dies ' is 
no service ' mit ' walk." Shortly afterwards an old 
man, who was dressed like a high dignitary of the 
Church, came up to him, and after looking him up 
and down, began to lecture him in French ; not a word, 
however, did he understand, although he knew from the 
tone of the voice that it was a reprimand of some sort. 

I always purchase eau-de-Cologne when at Cologne, 
from force of habit, and I believe there are several 
excellent kinds, but I always remain faithful to the 
house of Jean Maria Farina, which is said to be the oldest 
(gegeniiber dem Julichs Platz). Several ladies who 
cannot endure scent of any kind and I have known 
a great many such like, strange to say, a present of 
eau-de-Cologne, especially a box containing several 


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bottles, which I invariably buy there. I would as soon 
think of going without my dinner at Cologne as leaving 
the place without purchasing eau-de-Cologne. 

I was never much taken with the town of Cologne, 
but it is very cheap, and the dinners for the money are 
remarkable compared with the prices in England. Some 
very good Russian cigarettes are imported from Russia, 
and a well-known German Princess, Fiirstin Salm Salm, 
always orders them at a shop not far from the Hotel du 

The hotels at Bonn in the summer are rilled with 
tourists visiting the Rhine, but the residents prefer the 
winter, when all the balls take place. Bonn is very 
cheap in winter, but cold and rather dreary-looking, 
as in reality it is a place more suited for a summer's 
residence than for the winter months. The river makes 
it slightly foggy of a morning in the autumn and 

I have ascended the Drachenfels on foot ; the moun- 
tain railway was not then in existence. The castle of 
Drachenfels was constructed at the beginning of the 
twelfth century, but was destroyed by the Duke Ferdi- 
nand of Bavaria in fighting against the Swedes. The 
view over the country is very fine from the summit ; 


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even Cologne is visible, and Bonn of course, and the 
neighbouring villages. 

With Professor Andra I often took long walks to the 
different small places on the Rhine during the spring 
and winter months. One afternoon we walked to a 
village, and at a very ordinary inn some peasants were 
dancing to the music of a violin. Prince Reuss XXVII, 
Colonel of the King's Hussars, came along with his wife 
and other ladies and gentlemen, and the Prince danced 
with the Princess. The other gentlemen in uniform 
followed the example set by their chief, and some of 
them invited the peasant girls to dance, which the latter 
seemed only too glad to do ; they preferred these smart 
young officers to their former awkward partners. 

I often went on a Sunday to Godesberg with Professor 
Andra. We took our coffee at a restaurant which had 
a very fine veranda, the glass part of it being entirely 
covered with grapes. We enjoyed the delightful view 
on the river, returning by train to Bonn hi the evening. 
There are some delightful excursions by train or steamer 
to be made from Bonn to villages on the Rhine, enabling 
one to return in time for supper. Rolandseck is a charm- 
ing village, near which is the island of Nonnenwerth ; 
this is certainly one of the most picturesque spots, and 

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easy of access from Bonn. The view from Rolandseck 
is one of the finest and most delightful on the Rhine, 
and I frequently went there of an afternoon. Sometimes 
I went by steamboat with some German students and 
their sisters. We mounted the heights among the vine- 
yards, and enjoyed ourselves visiting the various old 
ruined castles. The young girls would sing the famous 
song of the " Lorelei " and other songs in connection 
with the Rhine. We would return to Bonn in the 

Some years afterwards I went by steamer to Coblentz, 
where I bathed in the river by the bridge of boats. I 
stayed at the Riese H6tel, and dining at table d'hote 
at one o'clock on one occasion I saw a very pretty, fair 
young girl rush into the room laughing aloud, and 
suddenly disappear. I was sitting next to a German, 
and I told him I thought this young girl was an American. 
He replied that he was sure she was a German, where- 
upon we had a bet of a good bottle of Rhine wine, 
Liebfrauenmilch, on the subject. 

It was not till late in the evening that I saw this 
pretty girl again. She entered a room which I 
thought was a public reading-room. I found, how- 
ever, it was a private drawing-room. Two ladies 



W O 


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were seated in it, and after my introducing myself 
they all had a good laugh about what I confessed 
to them was the cause of my intrusion. The young 
girl was much amused, and I sat talking to her in 
German till long after midnight. I had lost my bet 
and my heart too. I paid my bet the next day, but 
I regret to say I never saw this very pretty girl again. 
She had left with her relations in the early morning, as 
she had told me she was going to do. 

I was staying at the " Riese " not so very long ago, 
dining on the balcony with a very fair Austrian lady 
whose brother is Forstrath to Prince Thurn and Taxis. 
She was considered a beauty in Vienna. While I was 
dining with her I fancied I could hear the merry laughter 
of the pretty young German girl whom I had met in 
years gone by still ringing in my ears. I walked in the 
beautiful Rhein Anlagen extending along the river with 
this fair Austrian lady, and we enjoyed the charming 
views. Her early childhood had been spent at Coblentz, 
as her father was a German from the Rhine. The bridge 
of boats, four hundred yards in length, connects Coblentz 
with Ehrenbreitstein on the right bank of the river. The 
fortress of Ehrenbreitstein rises three hundred and 
eighty-five feet above the Rhine on a steep rock. The 
c 33 

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view from there is most exquisitely lovely, as one can 
see the greenish-blue Rhine and the Moselle, which 
latter appears of a much deeper shade of blue. 

I visited Ems on one occasion from Coblentz. The 
town of Ems is prettily situated on the river Lahn in a 
narrow valley surrounded by woody heights. There 
are four bridges at Ems. The Kurhaus and Kurgarten 
are usually crowded of an afternoon while the band plays. 
The Kursaal is rather a fine one, and contains several 
rooms, with a restaurant and cafe", which are much 
frequented. The band plays also in the evening. Ems 
is certainly a delightfully pretty spot, but it appeared 
to me to be intensely hot and very relaxing in summer. 
The only strange thing I saw at Ems was a young and 
pretty American girl, who was followed on the promenade 
by a beautiful Persian cat. Suddenly the latter per- 
ceived a dog in the distance and climbed up a tree, so 
that the young American girl had to wait until it pleased 
the cat to come down again. 

The Rhine from Coblentz to Mayence is most interest- 
ing. I have seen it both by steamboat and by train 
many times, I may say. The castle of Stolzenfels at 
once attracts one's attention. It is three hundred feet 
above the Rhine, and was built by Arnold von Issenburg, 


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Archbishop of Treves, in 1245. The castle was destroyed 
by the French in 1689. In 1823 the ruin was presented 
by the town of Coblentz to Frederick William IV, who 
had it restored. The castle now belongs to the Emperor 
William II. From the tower a magnificent view can be 
obtained even beyond Coblentz. 

At Oberlahnstein, behind the village, is the picturesque 
castle of Lahneck constructed in 1224. It was also 
destroyed by the French in 1689, and has recently been 
restored by the present owners. On seeing this ruin in 
1774 Goethe composed his famous "Geistes Gruss." 

About one mile from the village of Capellen is the 
Konigsstuhl, which is partly concealed by trees and 
cannot be seen from the steamboat. This structure 
resembles a pulpit, and in it many emperors were elected 
and treaties concluded. 

The slopes of Riidesheimer Berg yield an excellent 
wine of that name. A friend of mine, Jean Baptiste 
Sturm, owns a great part of this property. He resides 
at Rudesheim in a house where there is an old ruined 
tower joining his residence close to the river banks. 
Opposite Ehrenfels in the middle of the Rhine is situated 
the Mouse Tower. According to an old German legend, 
Archbishop Hatto of Mayence, after having burnt a 


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number of poor people in a barn during a famine, was 
attacked by mice. He then went on this island 
and was followed by the mice, where they devoured him 

Rudesheim is a town with four thousand inhabitants, 
and lies in a bright situation at the bottom of the Nieder- 
wald. The celebrated wine of the place can boast the 
longest pedigree on the Rhine; J. Baptiste Sturm sent 
me some years ago several bottles of Riidesheimer Berg 
as a present ; it was truly an excellent wine, though 
somewhat stronger than Moselle. 

The Oberburg or Boosenburg, an old tower which for 
three hundred years belonged to the Grafen Boos, is now 
the property of J. Baptiste Sturm. 

Schloss Johannisberg is picturesquely situated three 
hundred and forty feet above the Rhine, and was built 
in 1757. The celebrated vineyards that yield an income of 
seven thousand pounds a year belong to Prince Metternich. 
A story is told of the lately deceased Baron Nathaniel 
Rothschild visiting the late Prince Richard Metternich. 
The former gave the latter an order for some dozen of 
Schloss Johannisberg Cabinet. Some time afterwards 
Prince Metternich stayed with Baron Rothschild in Vienna, 
when the latter told the Prince he had put up half a dozen 


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bottles of wine for him on the journey. The wine that 
Baron Rothschild made Prince Metternich a present of 
was Schloss Johannisberg Cabinet and had been sent 
to Baron Rothschild by Prince Metternich. The former 
was careful enough to deduct the cost in his payment to 
Prince Metternich in the account sent in to him afterwards. 




MY first visit to Wiesbaden was shortly after I had 
left Eton, and I can remember staying at the 
Blocksche Haus, which was opposite the Kursaal grounds. 
It was in the summer, and Wiesbaden was exceptionally 
hot. I was very pleased to meet two Eton boys there, 
one of whom, whose Christian name was Charles, was at 
my tutor's with me ; the other I did not know quite so 
well, though his mother, before she was married, knew 
my mother. She was the daughter of a baronet, and 
had married a very wealthy man, who was named the 
Emperor of China (because he dealt in porcelain), and 
not to make matters too difficult for me in writing this 
story without giving names, when I allude to her I shall 
call her simply the widow of the Emperor of China. I 
hope the Empress of China won't mind ! 


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Charlie at once invited me to dine with him and his 
family at the Kursaal, which invitation I accepted. 
His family consisted, besides himself, of his father and 
three sisters, the eldest being a good-looking girl of 
eighteen with dark blonde hair, and the two others 
being very much younger, about ten and twelve years old, 
and both excessively pretty. The elder of the two 
afterwards married Lord de and was quite remark- 
able for her great beauty, but she died very young, in 
the south of France, from a lung complaint. The widow 
of the Emperor of China had, besides her son who was 
exceedingly plain, two daughters, one of whom was still 
plainer than the son, but the other daughter was a beauti- 
ful fair girl of fourteen with almost perfect features and 
golden hair ; she wore her hair hanging loose down her 
back, and it shone like gold in the sun ; and she had eyes 
of a deep blue which equalled in their lovely shade the 
intense blue sky in summer-time. Her Christian name 
was Lilian, and Charlie seemed much smitten with her, 
and made love to her on every occasion ; whenever he 
had the chance of kissing her he did so, and she 
seemed rather to like it, for she in no way opposed 
him whenever chance favoured his enterprises. Lilian, 
however, always gave out that she would only marry 


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a prince, and nothing beneath that rank, as she 
had an income of two thousand pounds a year of 
her own. 

In later years she became engaged to a Prince Reuss, 
but she ended by marrying a rich English earl, who was 
old enough to be her grandfather. Lilian was not only 
a lovely girl, she was very accomplished, and a 
charming companion, and it was not surprising that 
Charles lost his heart to her. I used to spend my time 
visiting the two families, meeting them generally at the 
Kursaal, and then dining either with the one family or 
the other. Charles was a very good-looking boy, and 
at Eton he was considered to be one of the prettiest 
boys there. 

The widow of the Emperor of China lived at Wiesbaden 
in a charming villa which had a nice garden facing the 
Kursaal ; she kept many English servants, and gave 
very good dinners in her villa, but she dined constantly 
at the Kursaal with the other family, where I joined 
them. I stayed only three weeks at Wiesbaden during 
my first visit and then left for Baden Baden. The widow 
of the Emperor of China was an extremely pleasant lady. 
In after years she said to my mother in Paris, " You 
don't remember me, of course, because I had dark hair 


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when I knew you first, while now my hair is golden." 
This lady had an income of about thirty thousand pounds 
a year, and lived in great style in Paris, as she did at 

Wiesbaden is a larger town than Homburg, and the 
houses strike one as being very white, particularly in 
the summer months, and people often complain that 
the glare affects their eyes, but in the winter it is not so 
observable, as the sun does not, of course, shine so 
brilliantly. The Kursaal is a fine building with Doric 
columns in white, and inside the rooms are very beauti- 
ful, especially the concert and the ball rooms, but they 
are rather dark and sombre, and not as at Homburg, 
where the rooms are bright, lofty, and very much 

The old Wiesbaden Kursaal * was a gloomy building 
inside, and especially so in the winter months. English 
people go to Wiesbaden only in the summer, as a rule, but 
this is a great mistake, for the winter is the time of the 
year at which the Germans go there. Many years after 
my first visit to Wiesbaden I was recommended to go 
there by Professor Erb, who is considered the first 

* A new kursaal has been constructed, and was opened in the presence of 
the Emperor William II. in 1907. 


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authority in the world for nervous complaints. I wanted 
then to go to the south of France or Italy, but Professor 
Erb persuaded me to go to Wiesbaden, as he said the 
climate was better in the winter for all nervous disorders, 
and I took his advice. I lived at an hotel near the Rose 
Hotel, and the rooms were comfortable. I asked a 
German gentleman who took them for me if they were 
facing south, whereupon he replied that it did not 
matter as the stove would be my sun in the winter 
at Wiesbaden. I found the climate colder, for instance, 
than Torquay in winter, but drier, and the hot springs 
made one feel the cold there less than one would do 

The snow melted rather quickly, particularly in the 
streets near the hot springs, but on the grounds of the 
Kursaal the snow used to remain for some time. The 
Kur Kapelle is exceedingly good, and considered to be 
the very best in Germany. The concerts take place of 
an afternoon during the summer and winter months, 
and listening to the band is a pleasant way of pass- 
ing the afternoon, though no refreshments of any sort 
are served in the room during the concert. An entrance 
fee of one mark has to be paid each time, but by sub- 
scription it is cheaper. The reading-rooms are very good, 


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every possible paper is to be found there in the summer 
and winter months. Dances are given in the winter 
in the ball and concert rooms, and are usually uncom- 
monly well attended ; these dances take place about 
once a fortnight. The dinners at the Kursaal are rather 
expensive d la carte, and not particularly good for the 
money, but the wines are excellent. 

Wiesbaden is considered to have the mildest climate 
in Germany, and is frequented in winter by a great many 
invalids from Germany and Russia. Some Americans 
too pass the winter there, but I never met any English, 
excepting once an English officer of the Royal Engineers, 
who rather liked the place, as he amused himself by 
attending the dances given at the Kursaal, and privately 
so he told me. This officer was living at the hotel, the 
" Dahlheim," at which I have stayed in recent years ; it 
is situated well in the town. 

During my second visit to Wiesbaden in the winter, 
I dined at one o'clock at the table d'hote at my hotel, 
which was always crowded. I made the acquaintance 
of Herr von Scheve, who was a major in the Prussian 
army and had lived some time in China in the service 
of the Emperor of China, still remaining on in the German 
army. The Major was decorated by His Chinese Majesty 


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and was allowed by the Emperor of Germany to wear the 
order in uniform. The Major was a renowned chess 
player, and played for Germany in the European contest, 
in which he always managed to do very well. He gave 
me a book on chess, an exceedingly good work by Minck- 
witz. Wiesbaden is a great place for chess, and once in 
a cafe a German gentleman asked me to play a game 
with him, which I did. He was a fine player, one of the 
best in Wiesbaden, and easily defeated me. Chess is 
almost the favourite game at Wiesbaden, and in late 
years I played generally every day with a Hanoverian 
gentleman either at the Kursaal or in a cafe, and we played 
pretty even. 

One day we went to Bibrich and saw the fine castle 
of the late Duke of Nassau. It is built in the Renais- 
sance style and is very picturesquely situated on the 
Rhine. We walked in the grounds and were pleased 
with a splendid avenue of chestnut trees ; afterwards 
we had our game of chess in a cafe while some friends 
who came with us looked on at the game, and subse- 
quently we all took the steam tramway back to Wies- 
baden. Bibrich is about one hour's drive from Wies- 
baden, and one can go by a steam tramway there and 


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The Hanoverian was an exceedingly nice man, and 
I always took my supper at the Hotel Dahlheim with 
him and a young English lady, who was very like a 
picture by Burne- Jones, and still more like a picture 
called " Ivy," of a blind girl, but I have forgotten the 
name of the English artist who painted it. This young 
lady had beautiful dark brown, wavy hair, and her eyes 
were perfectly lovely and quite the admiration of every- 
body ; they were of a greyish blue with a shade of 
violet in them, which reminded one of certain colours 
in the sea at Nice, when the sun is pouring down golden 
rays upon it. At times her eyes had a very slight squint, 
but this was nearly imperceptible, and only tended to 
embellish them with a violet reflection. She had a good 
complexion, as most English girls have, and she had a 
charming smile, and always looked pleasant, which most 
English girls and women decidedly do not ; as a rule they 
look as if it were a crime to smile or laugh. 

I often think that if English girls, like the danseuses 
at La Scala, at Milan, were taught to smile while they 
are dancing, it would be of great advantage to them. 
I used to attend Madame Beretta's private lessons to her 
pupils at La Scala. Madame Beretta held a cane in her 
hand, and she struck the girls' legs with it, sometimes 


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making them cry, when they did not smile. It is a pity 
that we have not a similar institution in England for 
girls of every class, but more particularly for the middle 
classes. The girls of the aristocracy in England and of 
the lower classes might be exempted from this course of 
instruction, that is to say, those who know how to look 

But I am getting away from Wiesbaden. At 
supper the Hanoverian was fond of a bottle of good 
wine, and would order Johannisberg Cabinet, a wine 
from the chateau of the Prince of Metternich, about 
twenty marks a bottle, and a delicious wine too. At 
other times he ordered champagne Veuve Clicquot, 
which wine he drank very little of himself and insisted 
on our helping him. 

The Hanoverian was most interesting in his conversa- 
tion, and one evening told a story about the famous 
actress at the Burg Theater in Vienna, Frau Devrient 
Reinhold. Fraulein Reinhold, as she then was, lived at 
Hamburg, and made the acquaintance of a millionaire 
there, who was struck with her great beauty. He was 
an old man and Fraulein Reinhold was about sixteen 
and in all the glory of her radiant beauty ; for, en par- 
enthtse, I have often seen her in Vienna at the Burg 



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Theater in "Die Jiidin von Toledo," by Grillparzer, 
and in other roles, and was always struck both by her 
beauty and her remarkable power of acting in tragedy. 
The millionaire made her a present of an entire island 
near Hamburg, and had the water around it illuminated 
one evening for her, which had only been done once 
before for the Emperor of Germany, when His Majesty 
visited this island. The illumination for the evening 
cost the millionaire five thousand pounds, and all the 
water around the island had the appearance as if it were 
on fire. The millionaire has died since, and Fraulein 
Reinhold married Herr Devrient, of the famous family 
of Hamburg actors mentioned by the great Lessing in his 
" Hamburgische Dramaturgic," but the island, I am 
told, still belongs to this actress. 

The Hanoverian used always to say that he only 
admired the northern nations, and that the Austrians 
were like " Oberschaum " or the bubbles on the top of 
a glass of champagne, only froth with no substance in 
them. He thought the same of all southern countries ; 
his only admiration was for nations like Norway and 
Sweden, North Germany, and Denmark. England he 
knew nothing about and could not speak one word of 
English, so we always conversed in German. He ad- 


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mired this young English lady very much, indeed, his 
affection for her was something like adoration. The 
day she left Wiesbaden he sent her the most beautiful 
bouquet of Russian violets imaginable, but told her 
before that he could not 'wish her good-bye as he was 
too much distressed to do so. He was highly romantic 
in his nature, and excessively wealthy, but had married 
unfortunately. He was a tall, slender, fair, very active, 
military-looking man, with a 'long moustache, and was 
about fifty. I found him most pleasant indeed, besides 
which he was extremely sincere. We went all three 
together to a box in the new theatre at Wiesbaden, to 
see a very good actor, called Bonn, in a play of Raimund's 
" Der Bauer als Millionar," with which we were highly 

The new theatre at Wiesbaden is charming ; it is 
bright inside with deep rose-colour satin seats and cur- 
tains to the boxes, while the beautiful decorations around 
the house are in white and gold with arabesque 
designs. The theatre is indeed a delightful addition 
to Wiesbaden, and operas by Wagner and other com- 
posers are now given, besides plays by well-known 

Hanoverian German sounds rather pretty, the "st" and 

4 8 

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"sp " being pronounced as we should pronounce them in 
English, but other Germans consider it to be somewhat 
affected. There was a Prussian Jew at this hotel, who 
was pleasant and a great invalid ; he told me he could 
not bear the Austrians, and that in Vienna he once gave 
a Dienstmann a ten-florin note in order *to purchase a 
ticket for the opera, and the Dienstmann in giving him 
the ticket swore that he had only received a five-florin 
note and retained the rest of the money. This Prussian 
gentleman said they were all like this Dienstmann in 
Vienna, they thought it their duty to take in foreigners. 
It was apropos of a Vienna dentist that the Prussian 
made this remark. The dentist had charged an English 
lady one thousand florins for bridge-work for her teeth, 
and when an expert was consulted as to the charge he 
said that he would have charged her two thousand florins. 
It is needless to say that the dentist was a Jew and the 
expert belonged to the same race. This Prussian said 
that such a thing could not possibly happen in Germany. 
He related the following story. An Englishman had 
his hair cut at a well-known hairdresser's in one of the 
principal streets in Berlin, and was charged fifty marks. 
He refused to pay, and went to the police, whereupon 
the shop was closed within twenty-four hours by orders 
D 49 

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of the police, and the hairdresser was practically ruined 
for his imposition on an Englishman. 

In Vienna before a Bezirksgericht, where the magis- 
trate is invariably a Jew, a foreigner may nearly always 
say he has lost his case before it has been heard. But 
this is not so with the higher courts in Vienna, where 
they are usually very just in their verdicts. 

The walks about Wiesbaden are very pretty in the 
Kursaal grounds in the early spring, and there is a lake 
on which people skate in winter. In the warmer weather 
the Kur Kapelle plays out in the kiosk near the lake, 
where there are three large fountains, and at times a 
Prussian military band performs. The public in the 
winter in the Kursaal grounds is different from that of 
the summer ; there are in the latter period more foreign- 
ers, chiefly Americans and English, there. 

A lady friend of mine wrote to me from Italy telling 
me to call on a Prussian count and his wife, the former 
being an old man and an excellency. I did so, and was 
invited to their charming villa near the Kursaal, which 
reminded me very much of the one which the widow of 
the Emperor of China had. I met a number of Prussian 
noble families here, and all were very polite and stiff, 
reminding me somewhat of a certain class of society in 


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England. The serious, pedantic conversation quite 
overpowered me, and the duty of having to give all these 
various people their proper titles in speaking to them, in 
addition to the close atmosphere of the room, almost 
turned my head. Towards the end of this " jour," when 
tea was served round, I suffered so from headache that 
I found myself addressing a Frau Grafin as Frau Ober- 
landesgerichtsrathin and vice versa, much to the re- 
spective ladies' surprise and the former lady's horror ; 
however, I tried to remedy matters by calling them both 
" excellenz," when they were at once delighted with 
me. I thought really they were going to kiss me at one 
time. If it had depended on these two ladies no title 
or honours would have been high enough for me to 
receive in Prussia. 

, During my second visit to Wiesbaden an American 
publisher, very well known in England, was staying 
at my hotel, and he used often to frequent the dances 
at the Kursaal. I noticed he was constantly with a 
young English girl and her mother, who lived in a pen- 
sion. One day he left the hotel for Rome, where his 
wife was staying, so he informed me. I was walking 
with a French lady some days after, when this English 
lady came up to us and asked the French lady if she 


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knew whether the American gentleman were married, 
as she had heard that he was. After the French lady 
had said that she thought this was the case, the mother 
got very excited, saying he had made love to her daughter, 
giving her flowers, and that the wife, who was at Rome, 
ought to be informed of it. I joined in the conversation 
and said, " Possibly his wife does just the same at Rome, 
so it is quite needless to inform her." The lady went 
away looking rather disappointed. 

At the hotel there was a well-known German composer, 
who had been formerly an organist, and he kept his 
rooms so intensely hot in the winter that some one said, 
" Herr Langer, it is not healthy to have your rooms so 
heated." To which he replied, " As long as it suits me, 
and I feel quite well, it does not matter surely." He was 
asked by the same rather officious person why he never 
went to church, when he replied, " I was organist in 
Berlin for sixteen years, and was then compelled to go 
to church every Sunday twice a day for all those 
years, and I think that is quite enough for my 
life-time ! " 

There are certain very good places in Wiesbaden to take 
one's tea of an afternoon (for instance, Lehmann's, 
Christ Brenner, or Blum's), but some people prefer 


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taking it in the hotel where they have their full 

Wiesbaden is very cheap in the winter, and the food 
in some hotels is decidedly good for Germany ; the 
Rhine salmon is much better, I consider, than the English, 
and the former is often provided, and salmon trout as 
well. I very much prefer the Austrian way of cooking, 
but the German is not so extremely bad if you take it 
on the whole ; besides, one gets used to it. 

I was told by Professor Erb to drink the Moselle and 
not the Rhine wines, as the former are much lighter 
and somewhat acid, which is good for the digestion 
and for rheumatism and gout (which I suffered from 

English people who are at a loss where to go could 
do far worse than spend a winter at Wiesbaden, and 
one thing is certain, they will not be ruined by hotel 
charges, nor will they be half starved, as the portions 
at table d'hote are rather too large if anything. 

The shops are good, and the shopkeepers and their 
assistants about as polite as they are in English country 
towns, which might sometimes, in both cases, be im- 
proved upon. One finds a great difference in this 
rough-and-ready manner when one comes from 


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Austria, where shopkeepers and assistants are polite- 
ness itself. 

The young girls that serve in shops in England and 
Germany are not to be mentioned in the same breath 
with those of Austria it is almost like comparing a 
pure white brilliant with a caillou du Rhin. 




BEFORE I went to Baden Baden my father told me 
particularly to beware of adventurers. I had 
only recently left Eton, and he thought I should be 
likely to be taken in by them. My father told me a story 
about himself. 

On his first visit to Baden Baden he made the ac- 
quaintance of an Englishman who asked him to come to 
his rooms. My father went, and the man asked him to 
play cards for a couple of hundred pounds a game, and 
proceeded to lock the door. My father told him that he 
was not accustomed to be locked in a room and desired 
him to unlock the door. After he had done so my 
father walked out of the room and carefully avoided the 
individual while he remained at Baden Baden. 

A gentleman, who came from Paris and was a Pole, 
made my acquaintance in the train going to Baden 
Baden. He appeared very agreeable, but remembering 


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the advice that was given to me, I was rather distrustful 
of him, for he had a coronet on his things, even to the 
buttons of his coat, and it made me very suspicious. He 
asked me what hotel I was going to, and offered to find 
me a room in his hotel, but I told him that I had decided 
on which one to go to and had secured a room. He 
wanted me to alter my plans, which made me all the 
more suspicious, and I had great difficulty in getting rid 
of him at the Baden Baden station. 

It was in the month of August and Baden Baden was 
full of visitors ; the Prince of Wales, now King Edward 
VII, was there, and a number of most distinguished 

At my hotel I sat next at table d'hote to a very pretty 
lady and her mother; both spoke English very badly, 
dropping their "h's" right and left. I spoke to the 
daughter, who did not appear desirous of making my 
acquaintance, evidently, as I was English ; and the next 
day they had their places changed at the table d'hote on 
purpose to avoid speaking to me. I inquired of the 
proprietor of the hotel who they were. He said that 
the young lady was a Hungarian countess. I told him 
I thought he was mistaken, for they were English. 
He seemed rather angry and answered somewhat rudely 


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that he ought to know better than I did, for her husband 
was a well-known Hungarian count, mentioning his 

Coming from England, Baden Baden struck me as 
being by far the prettiest place I had ever seen, for the 
town was situated in a valley with a tiny river, the 
Oos, running through it, while all around were fir trees 
and lime trees, that throw out a most delicious perfume. 
The tiny river rustled and sparkled in the sun, and the 
birds sang on the trees, while on the promenade, in front 
of the Kursaal, elegant ladies from St. Petersburg and 
Paris seemed to endeavour to eclipse one another in the 
beauty of their toilettes. 

In the evening the promenade was almost like fairy- 
land, for the ladies were in evening dress as if for a ball, 
and there was a great display of jewellery. The spark- 
ling of the brilliants, emeralds, rubies, and sapphires 
round their necks almost equalled in splendour the 
illuminations of the promenade. To add to this, a 
delightful orchestra, under the celebrated Johann Strauss, 
the composer of "An der Schonen blauen Donau," 
the most lovely Austrian waltz that has ever been com- 
posed, poured forth its strains. I felt dazzled at all this 
splendour. Wherever I turned my eyes I saw youth, 


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beauty, and the most gorgeous toilettes, while the delight- 
ful music enchanted my ears such as they had never 
been enchanted before. I longed to have some one with 
me, but I was alone, and I knew no one. 

Suddenly I saw the most beautiful young girl that I 
had ever seen. She was dressed magnificently in white 
as if for a ball ; she had white satin shoes, and wore her 
dress decollete, showing the most lovely shoulders and 
arms partly bare. Her golden hair was hanging loosely 
down her back, her eyes were as blue as the sky is at 
Seville the brightest shade of blue, almost golden blue 
in colour ; while her cheeks had the beautiful rose-colour 
of the plumage of the sacred ibis. Her features were 
Grecian in regularity ; her nostrils were like the nostrils 
of a Greek statue, and her small mouth had voluptuous 
lips, showing her tiny, even teeth as white as pearls. 
She was a small girl of about fourteen or fifteen and wore 
short dresses, showing her stockings, which were white 
and d jour, and her tiny feet were encased in white satin 
shoes having Louis XV heels. She was carrying a large 
bouquet of " La France " roses, which contrasted charm- 
ingly with her face. 

I saw her go up to a well-known Russian Princess, 
who was accompanied by her husband, and give the 


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magnificent bouquet to the Princess, who kissed her 
afterwards on both cheeks, upon which she curtsied, 
and the Prince shook hands with her. Then I lost sight 
of her ; she had disappeared as she had come, as if by 

While walking up and down the promenade after- 
wards, whom should I meet but the Pole who had made 
my acquaintance in the train. He was accompanied 
by two ladies, one of whom was the Princess Metschersky 
and the other his mother. He bowed to me, but as I had 
refused to go to his hotel he did not welcome me as he 
otherwise would have done. 

I saw also the soi-disant Hungarian countess with 
her mother. They avoided me as before, and did so 
every time I chanced to meet them anywhere in Baden 

The Kursaal at Baden Baden is rather a low building 
compared with that of Homburg. The rooms are some- 
what sombre ; they are fitted up in the Renaissance 
style of Louis XIV, but they are very fine all the same. 
The concert-room is a magnificent room, gorgeously 
fitted up from French designs, and the reading-rooms 
are large and look out on to the promenade. 

The kiosk where the band plays is most artistic in its 


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form, and is the loveliest kiosk I have ever seen. It is a 
marvel of beauty in bronze worked in the most exquisite 
way, and looks as though the designs were of very fine 
lace at the sides of the kiosk, somewhat resembling the 
fountains one sees at Nuremberg. 

The shops under the arcades are all exceedingly good, 
and some of the shopkeepers come from Vienna for the 
summer season. These shops are in the Kursaal grounds, 
and are the admiration of every one there, but generally 
speaking the articles sold are very dear. 

Later in the evening I saw two rather pretty young 
girls on the promenade, whose acquaintance I made. 
They told me that they were Russian and pointed out 
to me all the celebrities at Baden Baden. I was much 
amused with them, as they were bright and lively in 
their conversation, and talked to me in French as if they 
had known me for years, laughing and making jokes 
all the time. I saw them the following day with an 
elderly lady, who was a grande dame, and in the best 
Russian society at Baden Baden ; but they pretended 
not to see me. However, later in the evening I met 
them again, and they were as friendly as before. They 
informed me that they were cousins, and that the mother 
of one of them, whom I saw with them, was a Russian 


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countess, the daughter of a prince, and that she was very 
strict indeed with them, and until I had been presented 
to her I must not notice or take off my hat to them if 
I saw them with her. These young girls were divinely 
dressed, and wore satin shoes of an evening at the prom- 
enade during the concert. 

The Hotel d'Angleterre was the principal hotel. All 
the very smart people dined at it, or at the Kursaal, 
where the dinners of an evening were equally good and 
expensive the Kursaal, perhaps, was somewhat the 
dearer of the two. 

I met an Englishman one day on the promenade who 
was very desirous that I should play cards with him at 
his rooms, but I thought of my father's adventure and 
carefully avoided him. 

One day I saw the Prince of Wales, now King Edward 
VII, on the promenade. It was in the evening and 
Johann Strauss was leading the orchestra ; H.R.H. had 
been in the Kursaal and came out of one of the rooms. 
A few moments later I saw the lovely little fair girl whom 
I had seen once before ; she appeared to me to be by 
herself in the Kursaal, but there were many other people 
there. I walked up to her and asked her a question, 
but she took not the slightest notice of me or my question, 


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simply ignoring both. I felt confused, and I did not 
know what to do. I advanced again towards where she 
was standing, but she deliberately walked away from 
me. I felt dreadfully mortified, and rushed out of the 
Kursaal on to the promenade, where no one in the least 
interested me. I only thought that I should have liked 
to know this little girl, and she had dashed my hopes to 
the ground. I went to the cafe of the Kursaal and 
drank some petits verres of cognac to drown my grief. 
I felt as disheartened as if the only person I loved in the 
world had cruelly forsaken me, for I loved this girl with- 
out knowing her, and would have made any sacrifice to 
have obtained her acquaintance, but I saw that it was 
perfectly useless my attempting to do so. As the band 
was still playing I remained in the grounds of the Kursaal, 
and it distracted my thoughts for the time being. 

As the doors of the Kursaal were closing, I had a 
glimpse of H.R.H. the Prince of Wales leaving the 
grounds with some gentlemen, and I sauntered home- 
wards slowly, feeling very dejected and depressed. 

While walking across the grounds I felt an arm being 
placed gradually and very softly through mine, and when 
I looked round I could hardly believe my eyes. I 
thought at first it was a dream, but I tightened my arm, 


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and then I saw the same golden-blue eyes, the same 
rosy cheeks, the same Grecian features with the nostrils 
of a Greek statue, the same red voluptuous lips, the same 
golden hair of the beautiful young girl, for it was she who 
had taken my arm. I asked her what made her rejoin 
me in that way. She replied that she knew I should 
be pleased from the way I looked at her in the Kursaal, 
but that she could not speak to me there as she was 
with her relations. 

I walked with her towards her house, which was up- 
hill. Upon our arrival she gave me a kiss as if her soul 
flew through her lips on to mine. I paid her a visit in 
a beautifully furnished room in which the furniture was 
in pink satin, Louis XV style, with lace curtains. She 
spoke Wienerisch to me, and it was not long before she 
employed the " Du " instead of the formal " Sie." 
She had all the charms of extreme youth, and was very 
affectionate, and as different from an English girl as 
possible. She told me that she was engaged to be 
married to a colonel in the Prussian Army, and upon 
hearing some noise in the passage she was greatly 
alarmed, and said that her fiance* was coming. I 
replied that I had a loaded derringer with me. She told 
me excitedly and almost breathlessly to turn to the right 


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through a passage leading to the front door. I did as she 
requested and thus escaped in the nick of time, for I 
heard some one, a man it was, running after me. I 
arrived safely at my hotel, but I regret to say that I 
never saw her again, though I have often thought of 
her since. I heard that she married shortly afterwards 
this colonel. It appears that she was the daughter of a 
Prussian general, and that her mother was a widow, 
half Austrian, from Vienna, and half English. 

The next time I went to Baden Baden was a good many 
years afterwards. The place had completely changed, 
and for the worse, I think. The shopkeepers grumbled 
and said Baden Baden had seen its best days. 

I was recommended by Professor Erb, of Heidelberg, to 
go there in the spring for the nerves, but told not to 
remain during the summer, as it was too relaxing. The 
autumn is very fine at Baden Baden, but intensely dull, 
as it is also in the winter, but in September the races 
take place, and it is hard to get rooms anywhere. All 
the beau-monde flock there. 

During my second visit the Empress of Austria was there, 
occupying a villa called Villa Messmer, very pleasantly 
situated, but rather high up, not far from the Kursaal. 

I lived in a villa inhabited by Dr. Dahlberg, the 


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masseur of the Empress of Austria, who had nothing but 
Swedish servants. This gentleman visited the Empress 
every day to " masser " her. Her Majesty was dis- 
pleased with Dr. Metzger, of Amsterdam, at that time. 
The Swedish doctor, Herr Dahlberg, informed me what 
a lovely figure the Empress had, and how very agreeable 
she was. Her Majesty presented him with a beautiful 
scarf pin which had the Imperial crown in brilliants, 
rubies, and emeralds, and her monogram on it. 

I was walking in some gardens near the Hotel Stephanie 
one day when I perceived Her Majesty with her daughter, 
the Archduchess Valerie. Generally the Empress would 
put up her fan so as not to be seen, but on this occasion 
she did not do so. I was reading " Die neue freie Presse," 
and when the Empress passed me I held my hat in my 
hand. She gave me a most gracious bow, and I thought 
how good-looking she was. 

I had not seen her since the day she landed at Dover 
on her way to the Isle of Wight, when she was dressed 
in her favourite colour, a dress of violet velvet with a 
toque in black velvet. I can remember how very beauti- 
ful she then was. I stood close to her as she stepped 
off the steamer. 

The Empress delighted in Baden Baden, and usually 
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spent the months of February and March there. She 
took long walks and drives with her daughter, the 
Archduchess Valerie. 

During my second visit to Baden Baden I made 
the acquaintance, in the conditorei, " Schababerle," of 
the sister of General Prince Louis Melikoff, who was 
extremely pleasant. There were very many distin- 
guished Russians staying there then. Prince Metscher- 
sky, who drove a fine Russian turnout with beautiful 
black, long-tailed, Russian trotters, always passed the 
winter at Baden Baden. Princess Gargarine was staying 
at the Villa Gargarine ; Prince and Princess Gortscha- 
kow also resided in a villa during the summer and early 

Professor Erb always spent his holidays at Lichtenthal, 
a very charming suburb of Baden Baden, a quarter of 
an hour's walk from the town. The Professor resided 
at the Bar Hotel at Lichtenthal, where I often used to 
visit him. Professor Erb took only one meal a day, at 
one o'clock ; never any breakfast or supper when at 
Lichtenthal. Eminent doctors have told me in England 
that the Professor is the very best doctor in the world 
for nervous disorders, but seeing so many nervous 
patients makes him irritable at times. 


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Once I went to see him at Heidelberg. His waiting- 
room was full, and as he looked in there for a moment 
every one stood up. A very smart lady, with a footman 
in attendance on her, wanted to enter his consulting- 
room, but he asked her, " Why do you come before your 
turn ? " She replied, " Because I have been waiting 
for three hours." Professor Erb came up to me, and 
addressing the lady said, " You have been waiting three 
hours, but this gentleman has been waiting three days," 
and he led me into his consulting-room. In doing so 
the Professor murmured " Cursed Jews ! " which the 
lady overheard, and went away in consequence. 

I found Baden Baden very slow during my second 
visit. The animation had entirely gone ; the fetes were 
the same, but the people were not, which made all the 

Herr Konnemann, formerly an Austrian military con- 
ductor, led the Kur Kapelle very well indeed, and he 
played some ballet music of mine, a pas de deux, and all 
my friends at Baden Baden were delighted with the 
way the orchestra played it. 

A friend of mine was at Baden Baden a year or two 
ago, and said that during the race fortnight in Sep- 
tember the most fashionable people from Vienna and 


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Berlin were there, and that Baden Baden was most 

During my second visit the Duke of Hamilton was at 
Baden Baden with his sister, the Countess Festetics, and 
the latter used to smoke one thousand cigarettes a month. 
The Duke of Hamilton was the son of the Princess of 
Baden, sister of the Grand Duke of Baden. 

Baden Baden is now really only fashionable in the 
spring, and very much so in the early autumn. In the 
summer months it is crowded at times, but with the 
sort of people one would meet at a certain town in 
Somerset very strait-laced, prudish, and most un- 
interesting. Baden Baden has decidedly had its day, 
and so has this town in Somerset, though there are a few 
interesting people in each of these places. Mais il 
s'agit de les trouver. 




THE first time I went to Carlsbad was many years 
ago, when on leave from my regiment, which was 
stationed at Rawal Pindi, in India. I had been recom- 
mended to take the waters at Carlsbad, and went first 
of all to Paris. 

On leaving Paris I found myself in the same railway 
carriage with an elderly English lady and her daughter, 
whose acquaintance I made. They were travelling to 
Marienbad, as the mother was very stout indeed, and 
desired to reduce her weight, as she said life was a torture 
to her, being so excessively fat. 

At Nuremberg a rather nice-looking lady entered the 


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same carriage, who had a very smart footman in livery 
in attendance, and who carried an immense bouquet of 
flowers, which he put in the carriage near the lady. 
Almost immediately the train had started this lady, 
who was the Baroness James Edouard de Rothschild, 
entered into conversation with the other people in the 
carriage, and she was very pleasant, speaking English 
quite perfectly, having, as she informed us, spent half 
her life in England, but then was residing in Paris with 
her family. She had been ordered to take the waters 
at Marienbad, and had sent on fourteen servants from 
Paris to get everything ready to receive her at 

I got out at Carlsbad, where I took an " Einspanner " 
and drove to the Hotel Goldenes Schild, which was the 
principal hotel there. This hotel, which has been con- 
siderably enlarged since then, is now better known as 
the Hotel zu den drei Monarchen, in consequence of the 
Emperors of Austria, Germany, and Russia having 
resided there, and their meeting together on one occasion 
at this hotel. 

The morning after my arrival at Carlsbad I consulted 
Dr. Ritter von Hochberg, the doctor of the Emperor of 
Germany, who was a very nice old man, who told me to 


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drink the Schlossbrunn waters before breakfast, two 
glasses full, and then walk before having my breakfast 
for about half an hour in the country. 

I followed the instructions of the doctor, walking out 
in the country, a delightful walk shaded with trees, with 
a tiny river flowing rapidly some ten feet below the path 
I was walking on. After walking for about twenty 
minutes I came to Posthof, where at a very good restau- 
rant, out of doors, I had my breakfast, which consisted 
of coffee, such as I had never tasted so excellent before, 
and a boiled egg and some Austrian " Kaiser Semmel," 
very small loaves of bread, for which Austria is quite 
famous. My breakfast was served by a pretty young 
Austrian girl, who was tastefully dressed, and her hair 
was arranged after the latest fashion, which was so 
different from the slipshod English servant girl at a 
place of the sort in England. I enjoyed the walk back 
to the hotel immensely along the river, with beautiful 
trees all the way, in this most delightfully picturesque 

Dining one day at the Hotel Konig von Hannover I 
made the acquaintance of an elderly American lady, 
who lived in an apartment in the English quarter of 
Carlsbad. She invited me to come and see her at 


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her rooms, which were very comfortable, and where 
she offered me a cup of English tea. This lady was 
very fond of taking drives in the country, and always 
used to invite me to come with her, which I did 

One day she introduced me to a Hanoverian baron, 
the son of the " Obersthofmeister " of the late King of 
Hanover. The baron was a young man, who was in an 
Austrian cavalry regiment, and who disliked the Prus- 
sians immensely. One day I asked him if he would care 
to know a man I knew in Carlsbad, who was a Prussian 
line officer. The baron then said, "It is all very well 
for you to know him, for you are not a German, but I 
could not possibly be seen with him. First of all, he is a 
Prussian, and then he is in a line regiment, and I could 
not go about with him, as I am in a cavalry regiment, 
you know." 

I usually met the American lady and the baron at one 
o'clock on most days at the Hotel Konig von Hannover, 
where we dined together at a small table on the veranda 
of the hotel, going afterwards to Sans Souci or Posthof 
of an afternoon to hear the military concert, which was 
very fine indeed. 

The band consisted of fifty men, and played the very 


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difficult music of Wagner in the most brilliant fashion, 
besides playing lighter music, too, in a marvellous manner. 
This band was that of the Thirty-fifth Regiment Konig 
von Hannover, an Austrian band which had won the 
first prize and gold medal at the Exhibition at Brussels 
in the competition of military bands of all nations. This 
band put all French, German, and English military bands 
quite in the shade. 

A principal feature I noticed in the band was that there 
were two men who played cymbals, and the big drum 
was quite an insignificant item in the band, the side 
drum being much more used. The effect produced by 
this alteration in the composition of a military band is 
quite astounding, and I should recommend it to English 
bandmasters of military bands, as the big drum is far 
too important an instrument in England, and it is very 
distressing at times to one's ears. The way the cymbals 
are played by an Austrian band has something very 
enlivening, especially when the regiment is marching 

Speaking of the big drum reminds me that when the 
troops disembarked at Portsmouth from the troopship 
on which I came home from India, an infantry regiment 
was ordered to march off with its band playing ; but the 


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big drum happened to be filled with cigars, so it could 
hardly sound at all, which produced perfect consternation 
among the men of the regiment, as they were practically 
deprived of their leading instrument, which would have 
passed unperceived with an Austrian infantry regiment, 
as the cymbals are heard above all other instruments. 
In Austria the big drum is generally carried on a small 
cart led by a small pony when the regiment marches 

The military concert was always very well attended 
at Carlsbad. Sometimes the band would play at Pupp's 
Cafe near the town of an afternoon, while the people 
were drinking their coffee sitting at little tables under 
large trees. An entrance fee of fifty kreutzers, or about 
tenpence, was paid, and very great difficulty there always 
was to obtain seats. 

Since those days Pupp's Cafe has been made much 
larger, and a fine hotel has been constructed on to it, 
called Pupp's Hotel, which is a very favourite dining 
place, where for two florins fifty kreutzers a very good 
dinner is provided, and the look-out on the trees where 
the military band plays is very agreeable in the hot 
summer weather. At Pupp's Cafe they keep almost 
every newspaper in all possible languages, which one is 


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allowed to take out and read under the trees while the 
band plays of an afternoon. 

One day in recent years I was sitting out at Pupp's 
Cafe when this very same military band, but under a 
different conductor, while I was reading the Times, 
suddenly struck up a march of my own composition, 
which I did not expect to hear, as the march that is 
played at the commencement of the concert is never 
on the programme. After the concert I saw the band- 
master, who introduced me to the owner of Pupp's Cafe 
and Hotel, who kindly complimented me on my march, 
and told me that he had imagined all English people 
were somewhat like the Chinese as far as music was 
concerned, so he rather looked upon me as an anomaly. 

This same military band plays twice a week at Marien- 
bad, where I have often heard it play, and occasionally 
at Franzensbad, where in recent years I was introduced 
to the colonel and officers of the regiment after my march 
had been played there, when the colonel told the band- 
master to play it on parade at Pilsen. I have never 
been to Carlsbad without hearing my march per- 
formed by the military band, and I have heard it 
under two different bandmasters with the same 


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On some days of the week the Kur Kapelle, or string 
band, plays at Carlsbad at Pupp's Cafe ; this is one of 
the finest orchestras in Austria, and then it performed 
under the famous conductor August Labitzky, com- 
poser of a good many mazurkas and waltzes. These 
concerts, however, were never so well frequented as the 
military concerts, probably because one had not to pay 
to hear them. 

Every Friday afternoon in quite recent years August 
Labitzky organized a classical concert at Posthof, for 
which an entrance fee had to be paid of fifty kreutzers, 
when there were always a great many fashionable people 
attending. One day was devoted to Wagner's com- 
positions only, another day to Mozart, and another day 
to Beethoven, and at times mixed classical music by 
various composers. Once a month Labitzky arranged 
a ladies' day, on which certain ladies were allowed to 
make up the programme of music from composers 
they preferred, which always amused Labitzky, so he 
told me, as they chose such extraordinary pieces at 

Labitzky once told an English lady in my presence 
that he was a great admirer of English ladies, and that 
when he was the conductor of Queen Victoria of England's 


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private band at Buckingham Palace (which he was for five 
years) he never saw such lovely women with such perfect 
shoulders as he did at Queen Victoria's State balls. 
Labitzky said he had been to Warsaw, Paris, St. Peters- 
burg, and Vienna, but he admired the ladies of the 
English aristocracy more than those of any other 

In recent years Labitzky always played, when I asked 
him to do so, a suite de ballet of mine called " Un songe 
aux ailes d'Or," which he constantly put on the pro- 
gramme, and which was first of all played at the Crystal 
Palace by the orchestra under Sir August Manns, but 
has never been published, though it has always been 
much applauded, both in England and Austria. A very 
celebrated pianist, Brandt Buys, in Vienna, wanted to 
arrange this suite de ballet of mine with variations for 
the piano, when I was last there. 

The places where afternoon coffee is taken are all in 
the country at Carlsbad, and every one sits at small 
tables under trees, generally listening to music. 

Poor Labitzky ! When I was at Reichenhall, in 
Bavaria, not so very long ago, a young Austrian girl of 
fifteen, whose Christian name was Laudi, and who was 
fair and sweetly pretty, and engaged to be married to 


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one of the Princes Issenburg Birstein, told me of the 
arrival of Labitzky and his family at Reichenhall. A 
few days afterwards this same young girl told me Labitzky 
had died quite suddenly of influenza. 

Labitzky was to be buried at Carlsbad, and a grand 
procession was organized at Carlsbad the day the coffin 
arrived there ; but by some mistake the coffin of an 
old woman was sent to Carlsbad instead, and was 
conducted all over the town with great ceremony, and 
the following day Labitzky's remains were sent to 
Carlsbad, after the mistake had been discovered. 

At the Caf6 Pupp the girls who waited on the people 
had their Christian name, such as Mizzi, Fanni, Resi, 
pinned with silver brooches on to their dresses, and had 
their hair dressed by a coiffeur. These girls were for 
the most part very pretty, and were all so amiable. 

One gentleman, in recent years, having finished his 
" cure," received about twenty bouquets of beautiful 
flowers, all put on his breakfast table at Pupp's by the 
girls serving. People said it must have cost him at least 
one hundred florins in the way of tips. 

On my first visit to Carlsbad one day, on going to see 
my doctor, I made the acquaintance there of a Hungarian 
cavalry officer who wore only one spur in uniform, as he 


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said he had lost the other ; but he did not trouble himself 
about the loss much, for each time I met him there he 
always appeared with only one spur. 

On my asking my doctor what I was in his debt, he 
told me he left it entirely to me to give him what I liked. 
So I put fifty florins in an envelope, which the doctor 
refused to open in my presence, saying he knew that 
it was all right. After a " cure " of three weeks I left 
Carlsbad for Franzensbad for an after-cure, which my 
doctor had advised my taking. 

One day on my first visit to Carlsbad I dined at one 
o'clock at a small restaurant near my doctor's, on the 
way to the station, and a German I did not know sat at 
my table. When the waiter brought him a beefsteak he 
asked what it was, and said it was only enough for a 
bird. The waiter told him it was " Kurgemass." Then 
the German became furious, and said he had not come 
to Carlsbad to be starved, but to enjoy himself, and that 
he was not ill at all. The waiter then told him he had 
better go somewhere else, as the menu was arranged for 
invalids, and not for healthy people. 

From the Hotel Goldenes Schild one can see by means 
of a field-glass a bronze stag high up on a rock in the 
woods. I was told this is called the " Hirschensprung," 


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as a stag once leapt down from that height below in the 

The town of Carlsbad is gloriously situated in a lovely 
valley, with a tiny little river flowing through the town. 
The shops are quite magnificent there, and all in one long 
street, easy of access even to a lazy person like myself. 
The toilettes at Carlsbad are of late years something 
astounding, and especially at Pupp's Hotel, where very 
wealthy English and Americans dine. 

During the last few years the Carlsbad races have been 
a great attraction there. I went to them with an English 
lady, and on one occasion an English major I knew told 
the lady he was certain that the horse he had chosen 
and backed heavily would win the hurdle race. How- 
ever, the major judged the horse by its looks and the 
way it cantered, for when the race began the major 
suddenly exclaimed, " Good heavens ! My horse can- 
not jump at all ! " And indeed it proved so, for the 
horse had no idea of jumping, and came in an easy 

Once I went to the races from Franzensbad, and 
lunched at a tiny restaurant at Carlsbad, where the 
waiter told me he would mark all the winners on my 
card. I let him do so. On my arrival at the races I 


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showed a jockey I knew my card marked by the waiter. 
The jockey laughed and said the horse marked for the 
first race could not win, and advised my backing another 
horse. However, the waiter had marked the winner. 
The second race I took the jockey's advice again, but 
the horse marked on my card won. The third race 
the jockey said was quite impossible for the animal 
marked to win. However, it did, paying two hundred 
and fifty florins for five at the totalisateur and I had 
not backed it ! The waiter had only marked one other 
horse, which was for a steeplechase, and the jockey said, 
" I know the horse ; it is the worst in the race." How- 
ever, the favourite fell and the horse marked, which, of 
course, I had not backed, won. 

The next day I was unable to go to the races, as 
Labitzky was playing my suite de ballet, " Un songe 
aux ailes d'Or," and I wanted to hear it with some ladies 
I was with, particularly, too, as the last time I had heard 
it played, on account of the damp weather, the " Glocken- 
spiel " could not be used in this piece of music, and the 
harps had been slightly altered by Labitzky for me. 
However, a celebrated English jockey had marked my 
card, so I went to the restaurant and found the waiter, 
and paid his expenses of going to the races, telling him 
F 81 

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to back all the horses marked on the card, giving him a 
considerable sum of money to do so for me. 

When the concert was over I returned to the Hotel 
zu den drei Monarchen, where I was staying for the time 
of the races, and I soon met the English jockey, who told 
me he had marked every winner on my card eight 
winners. I anxiously awaited the waiter, who finally 
came towards me holding up his hands, and exclaiming, 
" Alles verloren ! " " What ? " I shouted. " I gave you 
a card marked with all the winners ; it is quite impossible 
what you say." Then he showed me a lot of tickets 
of the totalisateur, which he said he had taken for me, 
which were for quite different horses from those marked 
on my card. He explained to me that he fancied other 
horses, consequently had backed them instead of backing 
the horses I told him to do. 

I went at once to the police station and explained 
everything in German to the chief officer there, who had 
the man arrested, and he was cross-questioned before me. 
But the scoundrel produced those tickets, which he had 
evidently picked up on the racecourse after each race was 
over, as the chief officer said to me ; but it would have 
involved me in a lawsuit to recover the money I had 
given him to bet with, and, as in Austria lawyers are 

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not quite so unscrupulous as in some countries (but they 
can charge very much at times, and not as in Germany, 
where there is a fixed tariff arranged by Government), 
and, besides, this waiter had no money of his own, so 
there was really nothing for me to do. But, as the chief 
officer said very wisely, " It was very imprudent of you 
trusting in a waiter you knew nothing about ; he is a 
scoundrel, but it would only cost you more money to 
try to recover what he says he has not got." 

During my first visit to Carlsbad I made the acquaint- 
ance of a very wealthy old Englishman, who had a 
courier and several servants with him ; and the valet, 
having nothing to do, amused himself by taking the 
Sprudel waters, which are very strong, and come out of 
the earth boiling hot. This valet, who before then was 
in perfect health, gave himself a very serious internal 
complaint, and had to be sent home to England in 
consequence of this. 

A young Hungarian girl at whose mother's house I 
stayed for some time in Vienna, in the Reissnerstrasse, 
told me she was at Carlsbad when King Alexander of 
Servia was there, and one day she was at Posthof early 
in the morning, about eight o'clock, and she heard that 
the King was expected there to take his breakfast. So 


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she waited till he came, as she was anxious to see a king 
have his breakfast. She told me, however, she was 
greatly disappointed, for instead of ordering a breakfast 
" fit for a king," he merely had some coffee and one egg, 
which he ate so slowly and seemingly with no appetite 
whatever, and he merely crumbled up the bread, putting 
one or two mouthfuls in his mouth, and then he paid the 
girl who waited on him, though there was a gentleman 
in attendance on His Majesty there at the time. 

I have seen King Milan, the father of King Alexander, 
two or three times at Posthof during a classical concert 
of Labitzky, but very little notice was ever taken of him ; 
he sat at a table and ordered coffee, like the rest of the 
people there. 

The roses and carnations are perfectly lovely at 
Carlsbad, and so very cheap, too, where everything else 
is comparatively expensive. There are always a great 
number of good-looking cavalry officers at Carlsbad in 
their smart light blue and gold uniforms of the hussars, 
and dark blue and gold, and the dragoons in light blue 
with various coloured facings. I mention this as I have 
spoken so much about the ladies and nothing about the 
men at Carlsbad. Most of the officers come from stations 
near Vienna, and are chiefly of the nobility. 


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Carlsbad has a very good theatre, which has been 
built quite recently, where a good company performs 
operettas and comedies ; the actors and actresses come 
from Vienna for the summer season. There is a music- 
hall, to which I once went recently, and saw the Alexis 
family, who were wonderful as acrobats on the trapeze ; 
they are paid about three hundred and fifty pounds a 
week, I am told, and come from Paris. 

Carlsbad is really a far more fashionable place than 
Marienbad, and more distinguished Austrians go there, 
because Marienbad is supposed to be only a place for 
stout people, whilst Carlsbad now, in recent years, is a 
place not only for people suffering from internal com- 
plaints but also a place for pleasure as well. 

There are several factories of Bohemian glass at Carls- 
bad that produce most lovely glasses of every description 
and colour. The road to the station is all uphill, and 
filled with children with bare legs and feet, who are 
almost to be envied in the very hot weather. 

On my first visit to Carlsbad the American lady would 
often ask me to go with her to make certain purchases of 
lace and articles of luxury, and ask my advice, when the 
shopkeepers would try to kiss her hand, which she did not 
like, so they would kiss the hem of her garment. How- 


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ever, since those days the shopkeepers are less polite, 
and many of them come now from Vienna, and the shops 
are very much better. 

On leaving Carlsbad for the first time I went to Fran- 
zensbad for my after-cure, where on my arrival I looked 
for rooms, and secured a room in a house called Flora. 
The proprietress informed me, after I had agreed upon 
the price to pay by the week, that had she known I was 
an Englishman she would have asked me very much 
more. She never forgave me for not having told her so, 
not even in later years, when I returned there again. I 
thought Franzensbad extremely pretty with its villas 
with gardens attached to them, but the walks were not 
nearly so beautiful as those round Carlsbad. I was so 
tired after taking the waters at Carlsbad that I rested 
the whole time I was at Franzensbad, merely taking steel 
baths, which I found perfectly delightful. It was like 
bathing in champagne, as the water sparkled all the time, 
and gave a tickling kind of sensation. 

There were chiefly ladies at Franzensbad, and such 
pretty ones from Austria and Hungary, and a great 
many Russian ladies. I made the acquaintance of a 
young Bavarian count at the music in the Kurpark who 
was very musical, and played the violin beautifully. I 


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used to meet him every day, always sitting at the same 
table with him in the afternoon, where we took our coffee 
listening to the band playing in the Kurpark. 

In the evening the Kur Kapelle used to play sometimes 
at different hotels during supper-time, when I often 
went to these concerts. The bandmaster, Tomaschek, 
was a very good conductor, and was a great favourite 
of some of the ladies, who admired him very much, 
sending him various presents oftentimes, and bouquets 
of roses, which grew very plentifully round Franzensbad. 
The villa in which I lived was very comfortable, and had 
a lovely garden at the back of the house in which nearly 
every kind of rose grew. 

During my first sojourn at Franzensbad, which was a 
very short one only a fortnight I visited Marienbad 
one day, which is only three-quarters of an hour by rail 
from Franzensbad, so in leaving Franzensbad at half-past 
eight in the morning one can return there by the train 
leaving Marienbad at half-past nine in the evening, 
thus having plenty of time to see everything worth seeing 
in Marienbad. 

Almost the first person I met on the promenade at 
Marienbad during my first visit there was the daughter 
of the very stout English lady, who seemed very pleased 


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to see me. She told me that she was bored to death 
at Marienbad, that at first the lovely walks in the woods 
pleased her, but that she knew them all by heart then, 
and that seeing so many fat, uninteresting people made 
her long to get away from the place. I met the mother 
afterwards, who seemed very happy at the result of the 
" cure," and who said she felt she was much thinner 
but I did not perceive it, though. The Baroness, the 
mother informed me, had been most kind to her, but she 
rarely came out of her own garden, excepting to take the 
waters early in the morning. 

I thought Marienbad more lovely even than Carlsbad, 
surrounded as it was by the most charming woods and 
hills. The walks around Marienbad are really quite 
exquisite ; nothing could be more agreeable than to take 
a walk in the woods during a summer day, and have some 
coffee at one of the cafes, listening to an admirable 
military band at the time. 

In the early morning the Kur Kapelle plays in the 
woods under trees till twelve o'clock. The band used 
to be very good when led by Zimmermann, a famous 
conductor, but now in late years is not nearly so good 
as the orchestra at Carlsbad, and much smaller in number, 
though perhaps it is a shade better than the band at 


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Franzensbad. The Kapelle plays again of an evening, 
from half-past five to seven o'clock, on the principal 
promenade, where one cannot take coffee only sit or 
walk about at the time, looking at the very stout people, 
who are curious to see, and make one feel one is happy 
to be thin. If you tell an Austrian you are going to 
Marienbad, and you happen to be thin, he will laugh 
at you, for it is considered to be a place only for stout 
people. There is a very good restaurant in the wood 
near where the orchestra plays in the morning, and where 
you can dine for two florins fifty kreutzers, or five krones, 
and really well for the money ; I have often dined there. 

Marienbad is more expensive than Franzensbad, and 
about the same as Carlsbad, though since our King of 
England goes to Marienbad there are numerous English 
who like to breathe the same air as His Majesty does, 
and consequently English people have to pay more for 
their rooms than Austrians do, as the residents very soon 
detect the English accent. I have been to Marienbad 
since His Majesty has been there, and in certain houses 
I know of they charge their old customers very much 
the same as they did before ; but certainly they are not 
English, but Austrian friends of mine. 

An English peer, a brother officer of mine, constantly 


goes to Marienbad, and always takes a villa there, but 
as he is very rich he does not mind what he pays for the 
time he is there. The buildings at Marienbad are very 
fine indeed, the new bath-house especially. There is a 
cafe called Belle Vue, half an hour's walk from the town, 
a charming walk, where the 35th Regiment used to play. 
Now on Tuesdays and Fridays in the afternoon the 
military band plays at a cafe near the promenade, where 
I have also heard it play. For English people who do 
not like music Marienbad must be tedious indeed, after 
they have seen all the beautiful walks. 

The toilettes at Marienbad cannot compare with those 
of Carlsbad in any way, although there are some rather 
striking ones there at times to be seen on the promenade 
during the evening concerts. The theatre at Marienbad 
is good, but I have never been inside it. The Duke of 
Orleans, whom I know personally, is often at Marienbad, 
though he resides at Konigswart, a station between 
Marienbad and Franzensbad, and sometimes he comes to 

The lady from whom I rented my apartment in Vienna, 
in the Schwindgasse, used often to tell me that while she 
was sitting down one day taking the waters at Marienbad 
she noticed a gentleman sitting near her also drinking 


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the waters, when he said to her, " Es schmeckt nicht gut, 
nicht wahr, gnadige Frau ? " " Na, gewiss nicht," she 
replied, with a slight laugh. When some time after 
some one said to her, " Do you know who spoke to you ? " 
" No," she replied, quite innocently. " It was the King 
of England." " Goodness ! " exclaimed she, " if I had 
only known it ! " Many and many a time did this fair 
lady relate this to me, expressing her regret at not having 
known that it was the King of England who had spoken 
to her at the time. This lady was very fair, and con- 
sidered a beauty in Vienna ; her husband's brother held 
an appointment under the Emperor of Austria. 

I have read of some people overeating at Marienbad. 
I am sure I do not know how they managed to do so, 
as everybody complains of the portions being too small 
at the dinners there, unless they do as I saw a man once 
do at the Granville Hotel, at Ramsgate, in England, who 
ordered cutlets for four and ate them all himself. 

The Austrian wines, though not so good as the French, 
are not at all bad, such as Voslauer Goldeck and Adels- 
berger Cabinet. Red wines are usually recommended to 
delicate people, but the white are very good, especially in 
hot weather, mixed with Giesshiibler, which is somewhat 
like the Eau de St. Galmier or Apollinaris water. Tokay 

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is often recommended to drink as a dessert wine, especially 
for delicate girls and ladies, and is very invigorating. 
An Austrian general, Baron Baselli, chamberlain to the 
Emperor, told me once that the only place to get the 
real Tokay was at the K. K. Hof Apotheke in Vienna, 
where I have had several bottles from the cellars of the 
Archduke Albrecht of Austria in years gone by, for which 
I paid six florins a bottle ; but the wine was delicious. 

The second time I went to Franzensbad I was sent 
there by Professor Bamberger, in Vienna, for a nervous 
complaint, and advised to take the mud baths and steel 
baths as well, and drink the iron waters. 

There were more princesses there than anywhere else 
in Europe. One day I sat at the music at a table with a 
young girl and elderly lady whose acquaintance I made, 
and I discovered she was an Italian princess and her 
lady companion. The princess (Princess Casapesena) 
was about seventeen, and was very clever and amusing, 
and introduced me afterwards to some relations of hers 
at Franzensbad, who held very high appointments in 

Acquaintances of the best sort were easily made in 
those days at Franzensbad. The toilettes were lovely 
there then, and there was a celebrated young princess 


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who used to drink the waters at eight in the morning, 
when she would wear a lovely dress and earrings worth 
six thousand pounds. 

Everybody used to be amused when I told them I was 
sent to Franzensbad, as it was considered only a place 
for ladies. Quite recently I met an American at Fran- 
zensbad, who told me that the best American doctors 
were now sending their men patients to Franzensbad for 
heart complaints, and that he could see no reason why 
the place should not be good for men as well as for 
women " What is good for the goose is good for the 
gander." I have no doubt if the water does not cure 
the men's hearts that the ladies there, who are some of 
them very lovely, will do their best to assist the " cure.'* 

I always preferred Franzensbad to Marienbad, for it is 
quieter, not such a bustle. There always are a great 
many Russian ladies at Franzensbad ; it is almost a 
Russian colony, and the shops have things written 
sometimes in Russian letters over their door. A good 
many Russian princesses still go to Franzensbad, but 
it is not quite a la hauteur that it was, though more 
people of a different kind go there than formerly, and 
acquaintances are not so easily made now, except, per- 
haps, some indifferent ones. However, in recent years 


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I made the acquaintance of an English countess and her 
daughters in the most casual way there. A well-known 
English marchioness created rather a sensation with her 
toilettes and her great beauty a few years ago at Fran- 

Once I was recommended to go to Franzensbad by 
Professor Baron Krafft Ebing, in Vienna, on account of 
the air there and to take the steel baths, but not to drink 
the waters. I used to take my meals at the Kursaal 
of an evening under the trees, listening to the band 
playing, with a Croatian lady of the nobility from Vienna 
and an English lady. A great many Russian ladies asked 
me who that lovely fair Croatian lady was, whom they all 
admired so. I introduced the Greek Consul at St. Peters- 
burg to her at Franzensbad, and he always conversed 
with her in Russian, as it is very similar to the Croatian 
language. Lately at Franzensbad the Mayor of Fran- 
zensbad, Herr Wiedemann, has got up some " Blumen 
feste " of an evening, when there is generally, besides 
the throwing of rose leaves at one another (which is 
highly amusing at times), a beauty prize given. 

A young girl of thirteen from Vienna, whose Christian 
name was Mizzi, and who was very fair, with lovely 
features, expected to gain the prize. When she had 



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secured a very great number of tickets somebody threw 
some roses at her and caused her nose to bleed so severely 
that she fainted away and had to be attended by a 
doctor, and she was laid up for some days, scarcely being 
able to walk. This young girl was always called " Beauti- 
ful Mizzi " in Vienna. 

I have read so many books about old men and old 
women in England, whose adventures and lives have 
interested me, but I have often felt if they were a bit 
younger I should feel more interest in them, especially 
the ladies. Not that I do not admire old ladies, but it is 
a different kind of admiration. 

Latterly I have always stopped at a house called 
Sevilla, which is in the principal street and kept by some 
young and pretty nieces of Labitzky, which is very com- 
fortable. My doctor at Franzensbad is Dr. Steinschnei- 
der, who was recommended to me by Professor Bam- 
berger in the first place, and who speaks English like 
an Englishman, and seven other languages, Russian 

I was at Franzensbad when M. de Giers met Bismarck 
there, and saw them both at the time. I dined once at 
Holzer's Hotel on the veranda near the Grand Duke 
Serge of Russia and the Grand Duchess, and was struck 


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with her beauty and very fine features and great resem- 
blance to some members of the English Royal Family. 
I have also dined at Holzer's at a table near the lovely 
Princess of Saxe-Meiningen, who is an English Royal 
Princess too. The King of Saxony, the Queen of Sweden, 
Stephanie Crown Princess of Austria, Christina Queen 
of Spain have been there at the same time as I have. 

I can say that I am as well known at Franzensbad as 
le loup blanc ; I know everybody there, and every one 
knows me, and the more you see of the Austrians the 
more one likes them. I only wish I could say the same 
of every other nation ! 

At Franzensbad I made the acquaintance of a Russian 
lady who told me that she thought they made boots so 
beautifully there that she took back several pairs to 
Russia; she was so surprised at their cheapness. This 
lady was highly elegant, and bought all her clothes in 
Paris, even her soaps and perfumes. 

I generally stop at Nuremberg when I go from Fran- 
zensbad to Germany, and once I wanted to show the 
" Unschuld Brunnen," or Fountain of Innocence, to 
some ladies, when I saw a very pretty fair Bavarian girl, 
to whom I addressed myself, asking her where the 
Unschuld Brunnen was. She blushed crimson and 


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replied, " You are standing close to it." She evidently 
thought I had asked her wishing to make her acquaint- 
ance. This fountain is one of the most beautiful in 
Niiremberg, with figures of six young girls in bronze, 
from whose bosoms the water pours forth, sparkling like 
diamonds in the sun. 




IF a patient requires bracing air, a Viennese doctor 
will usually tell him either to go to the Semmering, 
or to the Salzkammergut. The former is nearer Vienna, 
and it has many drawbacks, such as being exceedingly 
dull, and the hotel accommodation is limited. There 
are only two hotels at the Semmering, one of which is 
a first-rate hotel and the other less comfortable, while 
for amusements, if any there be, they take place in the 

I was recommended a short while ago to go to the 
Semmering for a cold on my lungs. The advice was 
given to me by the celebrated professor, Doctor Chwo- 
steck, the youngest and most renowned professor at the 
University in Vienna for chest and nerve troubles. 


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The Semmering is very lovely ; the walks are all 
more or less mountainous, and in the spring and at 
Easter the hotels are usually full of people from Vienna. 
The air, which is very cold and exceedingly bracing for 
the nerves, is good for lung complaints, when a bracing 
air is needed. 

The Salzkammergut, on the contrary, offers in the 
summer months not only a very bracing air but plenty 
of amusement, and there are good hotels and rooms to 
be had to suit all tastes. The most bracing place in the 
Salzkammergut is undoubtedly Aussee, which lies higher 
than all the others. It is one of the quietest places. 
The Kurhaus is really little else than one in name. The 
one room in the Kurhaus contains at the utmost, on an 
average, about a dozen people a day, reading the few 
daily papers. 

Most of the people staying at Aussee in the summer 
months content themselves with reading the papers in 
their hotels. I met a writer whom I knew in Vienna, 
who had taken the cafe at the Kurhaus at Aussee for the 
summer months, and he told me that he had lost money 
by the enterprise. The following year he no longer took 
the caf6, but tried his luck somewhere else, where there 
were more guests. 


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The Kur Kapelle, which plays of an afternoon in the 
grounds of the Kurhaus at Aussee, is not at all bad 
Austrian bands are never bad, but this one was very 
small, and the audience was not numerous. The beauty 
of Aussee lies in its vegetation, which is most luxuriant ; 
the tiny river, which has an exceedingly strong current, 
is extremely pleasing to the eye ; along the banks there 
are numerous small trees, and wherever one looks one 
sees nothing but verdure. 

In the distance there are very fine mountains of the 
Austrian Alps covered with snow even in the hot summer 
months, the highest being the Dachstein, 9850 feet. 
The views from Aussee are really quite lovely, and the 
walks perfectly delightful. The hotels, of which Hotel 
Hackinger is the principal one, and houses where you 
can engage rooms for the summer months are very good 
indeed, and the people one meets are mostly distinguished 

Of late years Aussee has become quite a fashionable 
summer resort among the Austrian nobility, who often 
take houses there for the entire summer. The hotels at 
Aussee are filled with noble families, and of recent years 
more so than ever. Unless one knows Austrian families 
at Aussee, one is thrown entirely on the acquaintances 


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you happen to make in the hotel you are staying at. 
Alt Aussee is even quieter than Aussee, but very lovely ; 
there is a water-mill which is excessively picturesque, 
and every one drives or walks from Aussee to Alt Aussee, 
which is about two or three miles off, in order to see the 
charming view of the mountains and this water-mill. 
Very few people live at Alt Aussee excepting in villas for 
the entire summer. Alt Aussee is much cheaper than 
Aussee, which latter is more expensive than most places 
in the Salzkammergut. 

Notwithstanding Dr. Yorke Davies' advice to the 
contrary, I should strongly advise any one desirous of a 
very invigorating climate, such as probably he could not 
find in England, to try Aussee, but he must expect to be 
bored, if he be bent on finding amusement apart from 
walking or driving, that is to say, if he remain there all 
the summer. 

I knew a young Polish girl, who told me she had spent 
all the summer months at Aussee, and she was by no means 
easily pleased. She loved gaiety, and was very fond of 
dancing, but she said that the people were so nice in the 
hotel where she stopped that she was quite charmed 
with her sojourn there. Other people have told me the 
same thing, as the Austrians are very sociable. 


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On my way to Ischl once I made the acquaintance 
of an elderly lady in the train ; she gave me her card 
and asked me to come and see her if I chanced to go near 
Gmunden. This lady was the Countess de Bombelles, 
lady-in-waiting (Palast Dame) to the Empress of Austria. 

In the Salzkammergut there is always a great deal of 
rain in summer, which makes some doctors in Vienna 
advise their patients to go for good air to Franzensbad, 
but the air there is not so invigorating as in the Salzkam- 
mergut, yet in the former place there is not nearly so 
much rain. The nights at Aussee in summer are often 
cold, and in August towards the end of the month the 
autumn sets in ; the leaves begin to fall, and at night 
it is quite cold enough to endure a fire. 

Ischl lies lower than Aussee, and the climate is warmer ; 
in the summer months the heat of the sun is sometimes 
very great, but there is plenty of shade. Ischl is a 
lovely place with trees growing everywhere about the 
town, and the views on all sides are wonderfully beauti- 
ful. The Kurhaus is a pretty building, rose-coloured 
outside, and from the terrace one has quite one of the 
finest views imaginable. The mountains that one can 
see from the terrace, the Schafberg (6000 feet) among 
them, are some of them covered with verdure, while the 


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summits in summer are sometimes sprinkled with snow, 
which makes them appear more lovely to the eye. 

The Kur Kapelle, though better than at Aussee, is not 
very good, but still it is pleasant to listen to it while 
one takes one's coffee of an afternoon on the fine terrace. 
There are generally some exceedingly smart toilettes to 
be seen, and also a good many pretty Austrian girls and 

Of late years Ischl has become a favourite resort of 
the Jews, who are there in great number ; consequently 
the aristocracy does not go to Ischl quite so much as it 
did formerly. It is true that the Emperor has his villa 
there, and goes in the summer months, but His Majesty 
keeps very much to himself and to the ladies and gentle- 
men of his suite, and is never, I may say, to be seen by 
the general public. I have been there constantly while 
the Emperor was at Ischl, but I have never seen him there. 
I stayed once at the Hotel Goldenes Kreuz, which over- 
looks the grounds of the Imperial villa, but I never had 
even a glimpse of His Majesty. The Empress when she 
resided there was, if possible, still less to be seen. There 
is a golden cross on a small island in the river, from which 
the hotel derives its name. 

The promenade at Ischl is very lovely. It is near 


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the charming little river Traun, which has an exceedingly 
strong current, and no boats are able to go on it owing 
to the rapidity with which it flows. The promenade 
is lined with large lime trees all along the tiny river's 
banks, and there is a cafe" under the trees on the prom- 
enade where people take coffee of an afternoon, and 
sometimes the band plays in a kiosk of wooden con- 
struction near the cafe*. When this happens, which is 
generally twice a week, some very smart toilettes are to 
be seen. 

I lived once at the Hotel Austria facing the promenade, 
and had the room in which the Emperor of Austria's 
father slept and died ; the hotel was formerly the 
Erzherzog Karl's private house. It was delightful to 
hear the river rustling, and the birds singing to the 
refrain of the river in the very early morning. 

The "Kaiserin Elizabeth" is considered the first hotel; 
I have often dined there. It is situated at the entrance 
to the promenade near a bridge over the river. The 
Emperor William I of Germany stayed there for a week, 
paying three hundred pounds a day during his short 
stay. The hotel is not very expensive to dine at, though 
a little more so than the others, but it is decidedly better 
as regards the living. 


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When I stayed at the Hotel Austria Prince Alexander 
of Bulgaria was stopping there, and he was once serenaded 
by the Kur Kapelle in the morning. They are fond of 
serenading people at Ischl, for the Kur Kapelle serenaded 
me too, at the hotel, shortly afterwards. There are 
very lovely drives around Ischl, one to the Schafberg, 
and others, and I used at one time to be invited by an 
old Russian lady, the sister of Princess Baratow, and her 
son with a French lady, to drive out far in the country, 
sometimes across very narrow roads with precipices 
quite near, too near, indeed, to be pleasant, giving at 
times a shock to one's nerves. The walk along the 
promenade is very lovely also, and extends for a long 
way till one gets to a small wood, where there are seats, 
while the river rustles at one's feet. 

On the promenade there are a few smart shops, one 
of these being that of Krzwaneck, the photographer of the 
Imperial Court, whose photographs are truly excellent. 
The shops at Ischl are good, but not to be compared 
with those at Carlsbad or even Franzensbad. The 
principal and only chemist (there is no Hof apotheke) 
makes up Austrian and German prescriptions well, 
but woe betide any one asking for an English prescription 
to be made up ! I suffered from rheumatism and sent 


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a prescription by Sir Alfred Garrod to be dispensed. 
Thinking it was not the right colour I went myself and 
asked the chemist if it was all right, to which he replied 
yes. I then begged him to give me a glass. Heanquired 
what for, and when I said that it was to drink the medi- 
cine in, the man stared at me with amazement, exclaim- 
ing, " You want to kill yourself ! " He had mistaken 
something in the prescription for opium, and thought 
that the mixture was for external use. The best of 
it was that he wanted me to pay for this medicine that 
would have killed me. Of course I refused to do any 
such thing. The theatre at which they give operettas 
is good. I went once to see a rehearsal of a ballet given 
for the Emperor of Germany, the corps de ballet being 
that of the Imperial opera from Vienna. All the dancers 
came from Vienna for the occasion. 

The apartments are very cheap, but must be taken 
for six months, no less time being agreed to, and gener- 
ally you have to provide your own servants. English 
people (en parenthese I have never seen any at Ischl) 
should not be put on " pension " in Austria, excepting 
at Meran and Abbazia, but nowhere else, as it is not 
usual. An Austrian never takes the " pension," but 
always pays for what he has at once, which comes much 

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cheaper, as I have found. Formerly I was just as foolish 
as most English people, asking to be placed on board, 
but I very soon discovered my error. I have lived too 
many years in Austria not to know what is really the 
best thing to do, for in Vienna I am always considered a 
" Wiener." 

The saline baths are decidedly good at Ischl, in certain 
cases, and contain more salt than sea-water. A German 
I know, who had had typhoid fever, quite recovered from 
his illness after some baths at Ischl. I have taken the 
" Fichten nadel " (pine- wood) baths, which are thought 
good for rheumatism and are much recommended. 
The fine keen air is enough to cure a great many com- 
plaints, however, without the baths, and there is a 
deliciously fresh perfume of fir trees almost every- 

Some great doctors say that there is more ozone near 
rushing water than anywhere else. At Ischl there is a 
waterfall near the Kaiserin Elizabeth Hotel, and the 
river itself, after rain, is a perfect torrent. It often 
overflows its banks. There is good trout to be had and 
crawfish at times, and the living there is decidedly good. 

The former owner of the Goldenes Kreuz Hotel told 
me that he had permission to shoot the " Auerhahn " in 


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the woods belonging to the Emperor, but he had to get 
up sometimes at three in the morning in order to shoot 
these birds, as they are very wily and it is difficult to 
approach near enough to kill them. The " Auerhahn " 
is delicious to eat with " Preisselbeeren " (cranberries). 
There is a good deal of " Reh " (venison) to be had at 
Ischl, and it is uncommonly nice and not at all dear. 

A fete d'enfants is given once a year, during summer, 
in the Kursaal. It is rather amusing to witness it, since 
the children dance in various costumes. 

I knew a Viennese lady at Ischl who was quite a beauty 
in her youth, but she was then near sixty, yet dressed 
like a girl of seventeen ; naturally she was very much 
made up. She used often to talk to me about London, 
where she had lived with her husband. She preferred 
London to Vienna, but said she was quite ashamed of 
being seen with some English girls in London, for they 
were so much painted ; evidently she had learnt the art 
there herself. This lady had a great dislike for young 
girls of any country, and much preferred young men's 
society, as is often the case with elderly ladies. 

A young Viennese lady at Ischl was introduced to an 
old Roumanian Jew by a young English lady, both of 
whom I knew. The Roumanian took a great fancy to 

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this young Viennese lady, saying she had such magnifi- 
cent black eyes ; in fact, he asserted that he had never 
seen such eyes before, and such very long jet-black hair. 
The young Viennese lady being told of it exclaimed, 
" He's a Jew, and he wouldn't give you as much as a 
dinner, even if you were starving, though he says he is 
immensely rich." 

I saw this Roumanian constantly afterwards at Ischl, 
and I soon discovered from his conversation that the 
Viennese lady was quite right. Though so rich, he only 
considered himself and his family ; other people did not 
exist for him, so to say. 

Gmunden is delightfully situated on the lake of Gmun- 
den, and from the Hotel Belle vue, where I always stopped, 
there is the most exquisite view conceivable. The 
blue lake seen at midday, with the sun pouring down its 
dazzling rays upon it, appears of a golden sapphire- 
blue, and the small ships with their white sails moving 
through the water give a silvery appearance to the lake. 
The tiny boats with men and girls rowing are very 
picturesque ; as they dip their oars, the sun shining 
brightly upon them, the water from the oars sparkles 
like so many diamonds. 

Then the houses in a semicircle round the lake are 


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white, almost like marble, and the trees on the parade, 
lit up by the sun, look with their dark green foliage like 
immense emeralds ; one can only see the tops of the 
trees from the upper windows of the " Bellevue." 

Of an evening the lake, if there is moonlight, appears 
as though it were of crystal, and the numerous lights 
around it have a reddish appearance like so many rubies. 
The mountains opposite the hotel, the " Traunstein," 5500 
feet, being the highest, give an enchantment to the view, 
which must be really seen to be appreciated. Some- 
times the boats on the lake are illuminated with red, 
white, blue, green, and yellow lights, which give one 
the impression of some fantastic lake seen in one's 
dreams. The silence adds to this illusion, as no sounds 
of voices are heard at all. 

The Kurhaus at Gmunden is a white building with 
fine large rooms, but not at all luxuriously fitted up. 
The dining-room, where I have constantly dined and 
taken supper, is immense, and the dinners are very good. 
It is a more favourite place in which to take supper 
though, because the band of the Kurhaus plays all the 
time, and on Saturdays there is dancing after the supper, 
people not having to dress for it. 

The dinners and suppers are either d la carte or prix 


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fixe, and if there be two people, they are much cheaper 
a la carte. One portion is enough for two people usually 
throughout Austria, excepting at Meran and Abbazia, 
where Italian customs prevail. I mean the table d'hote 
system. Every one sits at separate tables at Gmunden, 
Ischl, and Aussee, as indeed is generally the fashion 
throughout Austria. 

Tombola was all the rage at Gmunden some years ago. 
On the promenade or in the Kurhaus you were given a 
card with various numbers on it, and if you succeeded 
in having four numbers in a row, which are called out 
" Quattro " by some one in a loud voice, you won a 
prize. If you succeeded in having all the numbers on 
your card called out, then you won the tombola. Great 
was always the excitement when the prizes were fetched. 
I won a rather pretty vase, and a lady I knew won several 
articles of toilette and an album. The entrance fee was 
only about thirty kreutzers, or sixpence, and each card 
was purchased. A great number of ladies and gentle- 
men of the nobility took part in the contest. 

I made some very charming acquaintances at this 
tombola. One was that of a young, pretty, fair Austrian 
girl, who was a Comtesse Saalburg (the daughter of a 
graf is a comtesse in Austria). Her uncle was Statthalter 


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of Gmunden, and he was often with the Duke of Cumber- 
land, who has his magnificent palais at Gmunden. 

The band plays of an afternoon on the promenade 
under some fine trees near the lake, where there is an 
excellent caf6 ; but the Kur Kapelle is something like 
the one at Ischl, very small in number. Still, it is an 
agreeable place in which to sip one's coffee while looking 
at the lake and watching the people, who are mostly of 
the upper classes, with a sprinkling of the nobility among 
them. The toilettes are not so fine as at Ischl, but the 
people are far more distingue as a rule. 

During my first visit I made the acquaintance at the 
H6tel Bellevue of Prince Alfred Wrede and his wife, who 
had been in England and spoke English very well. At 
the hotel were also Princess Gonzaga with her mother, 
whom I knew at Vienna, and the Duke of Mignano with 
his daughter, Marquise Nunziante, a fair, good-looking 
girl of sixteen, friends of the Princess Gonzaga. I dis- 
covered, too, a cousin of mine, who was fortunate enough 
to travel with two lovely wards of his, one of whom was 
Miss Moncrieff, who afterwards married the Marquis of 

In recent years I made the acquaintance of the cele- 
brated August von Pulszky, who was at the " Bellevue " 




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with his family. He told me that he had lived for years 
in London during the Kossuth rebellion, and was a 
member of the Athenaeum Club. Pulszky liked England 
and the English very much indeed, and talked English 
almost perfectly. He died quite suddenly at his palais in 
Budapest a month after I saw him, and was given a 
grand funeral. He was one of the greatest of Hungarian 
orators and politicians of recent times, and belonged to 
the Liberal party. 

Once while I was at Gmunden there was a procession 
of boats decorated with flowers, every noble house being 
represented. The Archduchess Elizabeth, grand-daughter 
of the Emperor (now the wife of Prince Windischgraetz), 
took part in the procession in a boat with other ladies. 
They were dressed in white, and wore white sailor hats ; 
the boat was decorated with water-lilies, and looked 
most charming. The Duke of Cumberland kad a large 
boat gorgeously decorated with flags and poppies. The 
Countess Salburg had her boat adorned with red roses, 
which was quite a dream of beauty. The theatre was 
represented by an enormous boat with the actors and 
actresses dressed in costumes used in Wagner's opera 
" Lohengrin." A white swan was attached to the boat. 
Some young Austrian girls I knew had their boat decor- 

M 113 


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ated with yellow flowers, they themselves being dressed 
in yellow. Another boat was entirely covered with 
white roses, the lady in it being dressed in a white costume 
trimmed with white roses, and her sailor-hat was adorned 
in the same manner. The last-mentioned boat gained 
the first prize. There were one hundred or more boats 
of various kinds and descriptions. In the evening there 
were fireworks near the lake, some of these being very 
fine indeed. The different colours of the limelight gave 
to the lake a marvellous appearance, as this light was 
let off on boats in the centre of the lake, which assumed 
the different colours of a kaleidoscope. Above the lake 
the stars glittered and shone as if they wished to excel 
the lights on the waters in their brightness and beauty. 

There is a very charming walk at Gmunden. You 
have to pass through the town and to walk over a large 
wooden bridge near a waterfall on to a narrow path by 
the side of very steep hills covered with large trees. On 
your right hand is the river Traun, flowing very rapidly, 
and on the opposite bank are fine woods, which reminded 
me of Cliveden Woods, the prettiest portion of the 
Thames, where the Duke of Sutherland formerly re- 

But at Gmunden the beauty of the tout ensemble is on 


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a far lovelier scale, though it is smaller, and the river is 
narrower and too rapid for boats to venture on it. One 
can walk on this path along the river for miles, across 
bridges at times. There is one large bridge of iron con- 
struction, very high up, which leads to a delightful 
restaurant in the woods on the right bank of the river, 
but any one suffering from giddiness would scarcely 
venture there. I generally kept on the left bank ; the 
walk is more picturesque, and on mounting a path one 
can have a delightful view of the town of Gmunden in 
the distance, and return home by a road for carriages. 

Often during my last stay at Gmunden I used to take 
this walk with a young English lady and a lieutenant 
of the I5th Hungarian Hussars, and sometimes with the 
young Austrian lady with the very black, fascinating 
eyes, whom the Roumanian admired so much at Ischl. 

During my last sojourn I often went on the lake with 
this young English lady and the Hungarian lieutenant. 
We used to get out at one of the lovely places where the 
steamboat stops, generally at one of the nearest villages 
on the opposite side of the river from Gmunden, and 
take our coffee in a garden. At the back was a swing on 
which some young Austrian girls would be swinging, and 
filling the air with their melodiously ringing voices. 


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Afterwards, to walk home along the lake was a tolerably 
long walk, but a delightful one. 

There is a very picturesquely situated hotel at Gmunden 
which nearly faces the Hotel Bellevue, but you have to 
take a ferryboat to get there from the promenade. I 
dined at this hotel once with the young Austrian girl 
with the black, fascinating eyes, and dined extremely 
well too. 

It is much the fashion to take the steamer after lunch 
at two o'clock and go to the end of the lake. I did this 
sometimes with the young English lady who had fine 
blue eyes, but of not quite so deep a blue as the lake. 
We returned about eight or nine o'clock in the evening 
by the steamboat. 

We often stopped on the same side of the lake as the 
Hotel Bellevue, at various charming places such as 
Traunstein. Some of these small places reminded me, 
to a certain extent, of Ventnor, on the road to Bonchurch, 
in their exquisite beauty. Everything was so green, 
and there was hardly a spot which was without luxuriant 
vegetation of some kind or other. The steamers were 
generally filled with acquaintances of ours from the 
Hotel Bellevue, or with mutual friends from Vienna, 
consequently it was always pleasant on the lake. The 


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journey takes about one hour, including the various 
stoppings en route, but with friends one is never bored 
for an instant, and there is always the magnificent 
scenery. I have at times seen English tourists with 
guide-books in their hands. I often wonder whether 
they are thinking that they can improve upon them 
by writing something better. 

Sometimes I walked with the fair English lady on the 
heights of Gmunden, and was lucky enough one day to 
find a four-leaved clover, which brought me good luck 
for the year. I must go to Gmunden again with the 
same fair lady, and perhaps I may succeed in finding 
another four-leaved clover. 

The theatre at Gmunden is perhaps not quite so good 
as at Ischl, but some interesting comedies are given, 
while at Ischl operettas are performed. There is a 
conditorei at Gmunden near the promenade, where very 
swell people go for afternoon tea. The band plays on 
the promenade from eleven till one o'clock, and all the 
monde elegant is to be seen there, more even than of 
an afternoon, walking or sitting at small tables, taking 
what the Austrians call a second breakfast, usually 
taken at eleven o'clock. 

The late ex-Queen of Hanover used formerly to live 


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at Gmunden, and her son, the Duke of Cumberland, 
now resides in his fine palace during the greater part 
of the year. I can remember the younger son of the 
Duke of Cumberland, a boy of fourteen, dying from 
swallowing a cherry stone. The funeral took place 
from the Hotel Bellevue, and all the guests were in 
full uniform, the funeral being a very grand one. Some 
of the archdukes of Austria attended also in uniform, 
and the hotel was crowded with officers from all parts 
of Germany and Austria. 

Gmunden was recommended to me as being a much 
drier place than Ischl, and better for nervous complaints 
and rheumatism in the summer months. The air is 
very invigorating and bracing. There is a pleasant 
walk towards Traunstein on the level road, to which 
I often went with this English lady ; its pretty lanes 
reminded me of the scenery in Devonshire and Somerset, 
though the lake and the high mountains naturally 
made this walk very much prettier. 

I prefer the Salzkammergut to Switzerland, though 
the latter is on a far larger scale. It is like comparing 
a large public garden similar to the one at Versailles 
with the private garden of some nobleman, which may 
be quite as fine in its small way, though not so grand, 


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and contains roses which are far sweeter in their per- 
fume than the ones at Versailles. 

Salzburg, though not in the Salzkammergut, is one 
of the five loveliest towns in Europe. I always 
stay at the Hotel Oesterreichischer Hof, which used 
to have a charming veranda looking out on the 
river, but now it has not, unfortunately for every one 

Mozart's summer-house, at the top of a very high hill 
near the Capuzinerberg, is worthy to be seen, and close 
to the station is a fine statue in marble of the late Em- 
press of Austria. I always go to listen to the very 
beautifully toned Glockenspiel that plays most delight- 
ful airs. They are changed every week and only play 
at a certain hour in the morning in a tower on the palace 
of the Grand Duke of Toskana. 

The shops are good at Salzburg. The town is ex- 
tremely white and clean-looking, and has a beautiful 
aspect, being situated on the river Salzach. The public 
gardens are good, and I have heard a fine Austrian 
military band play there during supper- time. The 
Gardens of Mirabelle are also very pleasant. One can 
dine at a restaurant and the dinners are uncommonly 
good, as is the case everywhere in the Salzkammergut. 


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" Apfel Strudel " and " Salzburger Knockeln " are 
well-known Salzburg dishes. 

There are delightful drives around Salzburg, but it 
is not a place to stay at for any time, as there are no 
furnished apartments to be had, merely hotels and 
good caf6s, one being near the " Oesterreichischer Hof," 
where almost all the foreign and Austrian papers are 
taken. Salzburg is cheaper than the Salzkammergut, 
but the people in the hotels are mostly tourists and 




IN this chapter and the following one I purpose to 
depart in some degree from my general practice, and 
to intersperse, among my recollections, descriptions of 
some of the curious old castles and towns on the Danube, 
and the quaint legends associated with them, that have 
come down from the Dark Ages. 

The Danube is the largest river in Europe next to 
the Volga. It is about two thousand miles in length, 
traverses part of South Germany, Austria, Hungary, 
Servia, Bulgaria and Roumania, and flows into the 
Black Sea. The basin of the Danube comprises a 
territory of nearly three hundred thousand square 

The Black Forest and the Carpathian Mountains are 


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on the north, and the Alps and the range of the Balkans 
on the south. The Danube is formed by the union at 
Donaueschingen of the Brigach and the Brege, two 
mountain streams from the Black Forest. After pass- 
ing north-east through Wiirtemberg and a part of 
Bavaria to Regensburg, the Danube turns to the south- 
east, and maintains that direction till it approaches Linz 
in Austria. At Ulm, at a height of fourteen hundred 
feet above the sea, it is navigable for boats of one hundred 

From Donauworth to Passau the Danube crosses the 
Bavarian country. At Passau the river is eight hundred 
feet above the level of the sea, and at Vienna four hun- 
dred and fifty feet. In 1830 the first steamboat between 
Vienna and Pesth was organized by Count Szechenyi. 
From Pressburg the Danube flows south-east ; after- 
wards it runs east to Waitzen. 

At Waitzen the river turns south and flows through 
the greater plain of Hungary. Passing Orsova, Kalafat, 
and Sistova, it takes a northerly direction to Rassova, 
then turns to Galatz, and finally extends eastwards to 
the Black Sea. 

Donaueschingen is in the Grand Duchy of Baden, and 
the most interesting object there is the Schloss, which 


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is a fine building. The gardens attached to it, called 
" die Alleen," contain many exotic plants. The view 
of Donaueschingen, where the Danube makes its first 
appearance, in the court of the Schloss, is highly pic- 
turesque ; and Sigmaringen occupies a delightful posi- 
tion. The bridge is a fine structure, consisting of six 
elliptic arches. The Schloss is the property of the family 
of Prinz Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen. Only along the 
right bank of the Danube is the soil fertile and the 
scenery at all picturesque. 

Then we come to Tuttlingen, on the right bank, 
which is also in a very fine position, and a grand view 
can be obtained from the heights of Engen. The Alps 
covered with snow, the frontier mountains of Tyrol, the 
lake of Constance, and the ruined castles of Hohentrocil 
and Hohenkraken can be seen in the distance. Tutt- 
lingen is in Wurtemberg, and on the road to Schaffhausen, 
through the Black Forest. 

The old castle of Homberg at Tuttlingen, which forms 
an interesting feature in the general view, is a relic of 
the feudal ages. In the Thirty Years' War its towers 
were dismantled, and it is still a ruin. 

Rauhenstein is picturesquely situated on the heights 
in the old Schloss, which formerly was inhabited by a 


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robber chief, who had a thousand men under his com- 
mand. The Schloss has been partly repaired in more 
modern times. 

Ulm, in Wurtemberg, is celebrated chiefly for its 
cathedral, which is one of the finest in Germany. The 
cathedral was finished in 1890, the first architect being 
Mattaus Ensinger, who displayed wonderful skill in con- 
structing this imposing structure. The view from the 
tower commands the course of the Danube, the Wurtem- 
berg Alps, and the battlefield of Blenheim, the scene of 
Marlborough's victory. The height of the tower is over 
five hundred feet, and it is said to be the loftiest stone 
tower in the world. The width of the cathedral is greater 
than that of any other in Germany. The stained-glass 
windows are magnificent, and when the sun shines 
through them the effect produced upon one by the 
various colours, the choir of boys in their white robes, 
and the fine singing of Mozart's " Agnus Dei " by a 
woman in the organ loft, is very beautiful ; the swing- 
ing of gold vessels containing frankincense by the 
boys in their white robes tends to complete the 

The Danube has a breadth of two hundred feet at 
Ulm, and its depth is sufficient for all requirements of 


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navigation. The bridge is a fine structure, and com- 
prises four arches. The current of the river is so strong 
and rapid that boats can only ascend the stream by 
means of steam. Donauworth occupies the left bank of 
the river and is close to Blenheim, but the place is of 
little interest. 

On leaving Blenheim we come to Neuburg, which is 
admirably situated. The chief ornament of the place 
is the Schloss of the ancient Dukes of Bavaria, a struc- 
ture of the feudal age. The gardens, or " Hofgarten," 
are well laid out in modern style. The Schloss contains 
a large hall, which is one of the finest in Germany. The 
best view is that from the battlements of the castle ; 
the towers command the country around. About four 
miles from Neuburg is a castle, a remnant of the feudal 
ages, crowning an isolated rock, and commanding a fine 
view of the surrounding district. It is a complete ruin, 
and is called the Schloss Hiiting. 

Ingolstadt was the seat of a university, and is still 
remarkable for the beauty of its buildings and streets. 
The Kreuz Thor, surmounted by pointed turrets, is ex- 
ceedingly picturesque in its appearance. The university 
of Ingolstadt flourished in the last century, and is now 
transferred to Munich. The castle of Vohenburg is a 


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striking feature in the landscape. The marriage of Agnes 
Bernauer to Albert, son of the Duke Ernst of Bavaria, 
was solemnized in this castle. The secret, however, was 
soon let out. The Duke issued a proclamation that a 
tournament was to be held within his castle on a certain 
day, and invited knights to break a spear on the occa- 
sion in honour of their lady loves. On the morning of 
the fete only one was denied admittance, and this was 
Albert, on account of his marriage with the daughter 
of a citizen. Exasperated at this, Albert proclaimed his 
marriage to every one. The Duke became so enraged 
that he sent Albert to the frontier. Agnes was seized 
and dragged before a tribunal, accused of witchcraft, 
and condemned to death. She was taken to the bridge 
of Straubing and thrown into the Danube. She was 
carried along the stream till she reached a bank where 
some willows were growing. She had broken the cords 
which bound her wrists, and would have escaped had 
not a man twisted a spear into her locks, forced her 
back into the river, and accomplished the murder. 
Albert, on hearing of the death of Agnes, joined the 
army of Louis Barbatus, the enemy of the Duke of 
Bavaria. Albert fought against his father's army for 
some time, but died at an early age. 


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About six miles from Neuburg is another ruined 
castle, which occupies a precipice and is called the 
castle of Walheim. Neustadt, a small town, well situ- 
ated on the Danube, offers some fine scenery. One of 
the most extraordinary works of art which the Romans 
have left behind is the Devil's Wall, or Pfahlgraben, a 
ditch and wall planted with watch towers, from which 
the town of Hohenheim on the Rhine can be seen. The 
Benedictine monastery of Weltenberg next comes to 
view. This part of the river is so hemmed in by preci- 
pices, which rise from the water's edge to about five or 
six hundred feet, that at several points they appear as 
if they would meet, and give the Danube the look of a 

On an open space between the river and the preci- 
pices stand the ruins of the abbey. This ruin has a 
singularly melancholy appearance, with the perpetual 
rushing of the waters, being quite isolated from other 
buildings of any sort. The abbey of Weltenberg was 
converted into a " Bier halle." The Altmuhlthal re- 
sembles some parts of the Rhine. The remains of castles 
occupy most of the surrounding heights, and produce a 
striking effect. The castles of Braun and Raudeck are 
the principal ones. 


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The Danube unites here with the Main by means 
of a canal from Wiirzburg. Kelheim, a small town 
on the right bank, leads by a large road to Regens- 
burg. Abach was the court residence of the old 
Dukes of Bavaria. Henry the Second was born within 
its walls. 

The next place of importance is Oberndorf, where 
Otto von Wittelsbach attempted to hide after he assas- 
sinated the Emperor. He was discovered, however, 
dragged from his hiding-place, and killed on the spot. 
Heinrich von Kalatin inflicted the punishment with his 
own hand. The head of Wittelsbach was afterwards cut 
from his body and cast into the Danube, and it is said 
that it refused to move. It continued to gnash its teeth 
and to fix its eyes on the spectators with a threatening 
look. The friar of Ebrach alone could withstand it. 
He held a black cross in his hand, a cross which had 
been brought by an eagle from Mount Calvary, and 
while every one else was in absolute consternation he 
mounted the river's banks and addressed the floating 
head in these words : " Dus. milabundus, Dom. infernis, 
presto diabolorum," whereupon the head whirled round, 
shook its locks, and sank to the bottom of the Danube. 
The people fell on their knees at this miracle. It is said 


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that the following day and night blue flames were ob- 
served issuing from the pool where the head had last 
appeared. The friar fixed the cross on a bank near the 
pool for seven days, when the flames entirely vanished. 
The people after this crowded to Mass, loading the 
altar with their gifts. The rock upon which Otto 
von Wittelsbach's bones lay is still called the Murder 

The approach to Regensburg is very striking and the 
scenery exceedingly picturesque. Regensburg owes its 
name to the river Regen, which unites with the Danube 
at Regensburg. In 1196 Richard Cceur de Lion was sent 
prisoner to the Emperor Henry VI, by whom he was 
given up to his sworn enemy and captor, Leopold Duke 
of Austria. The buildings are lofty massive structures 
at Regensburg. The Courts of Justice contain a torture 
chamber, which was used when the Vehm Gericht was 
in full vigour. There is a low dungeon in which there is 
no daylight, and the only air that enters proceeds from 
a dark passage through a small grating in the door. 
There is also a well about ten feet deep with no other 
entrance but a trap-door, and it is like a tomb. The 
torture chamber lies under the Hall of Diet. 

The Town Hall, or Rathhaus, has a Gothic portal, 
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rather finely executed. The cathedral is of the thirteenth 
century, and contains very gorgeous windows of stained 
glass given by a king of Bavaria. On one of the towers 
is the statue of a man in the act of throwing himself 
from the summit. It is said to represent the architect, 
who, having lost a bet with a builder as to when the 
cathedral would be finished, committed suicide in a fit 
of despair. In one of the side chapels is an effigy of St. 
John von Nepomuc, confessor of the Queen of Bohemia, 
who, refusing to divulge the secrets of the confessional 
to her husband (Wenceslaus), was thrown into prison, 
tortured, and cast from the bridge of Prague into the 
Moldau, where he perished. 

The Abbey of St. Emmeran is now the residence of 
the reigning Prince of Thurn and Taxis. This abbey 
was founded by Theodo the Fourth, and enlarged by 
Charlemagne. It possessed at one time an altar of solid 
gold, and in the " sacristie " were the silver shrines of 
St. Emmeran and St. Wolfgang. 

There is a monastery of St. James at Regensburg, 
.where young Scotchmen are educated for the priest- 
hood, and they were at one time attached to the interests 
of the Stuarts. The way in which they speak English 
is very strange, and difficult to understand. 







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The old bridge at Regensburg dates from the thir- 
teenth century. It was of such a heavy appearance and 
lasted so long that people said the architect who con- 
structed it must have been the devil. During his work 
the devil was much annoyed by two cocks and a dog, 
the images of which were on the balustrade. The bridge 
had fifteen arches, and was one thousand and ninety- 
one feet in length. Of the three principal old bridges of 
Austria and Germany, it was said that the bridge of 
Dresden was the most elegant, that of Prague the longest, 
and the bridge of Regensburg the strongest, as it was 
made by the devil. Formerly it was customary at a 
peasant's wedding for the best man to box the bride- 
groom's ears after the ceremony to remind him to be 
constant to his wife. 

The architect of the old bridge had a bet with the 
architect of the cathedral that the former construction 
would be finished long before the latter, but seeing that 
he was likely to lose his bet, he wished that the devil 
would take the bridge. A poor friar appeared and 
offered to carry out the work. The architect, however, 
saw by his cloven hoof that he was the devil, whereupon 
he made a bargain with him that the first three souls 
that crossed the bridge should belong to him. When 

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the bridge was constructed the architect let a wolf dog, 
a cock, and a hen cross it first of all, thus cheating the 
devil ; and the architect caused the figures of a dog, 
cock, and hen to be carved on the bridge on account of 
this event. 

A certain bishop, Albrecht of Regensburg, was fond 
of fleecing his flock and robbing those who approached 
his castle of DonaustaufL The Bishop heard that the 
daughter of Duke Albert of Saxony would pass that 
way. The Bishop seized the Princess and forty of her 
attendants, and made them prisoners. King Conrad 
caused the Bishop to deliver them up, but the latter 
endeavoured afterwards to murder the King. The 
Bishop's vassal, Hohenfels, entered the Abbey of St. 
Emmeran, where the King lived, penetrated into the 
royal chamber, and stabbed the sleeper in the heart. 
Then the Bishop proclaimed that the King was dead. 
But a devoted servant of the King, who had exchanged 
clothes with his Majesty, suspecting some evil inten- 
tion of the Bishop, had been killed instead. When the 
truth was known the Bishop fled, but the abbot of St. 
Emmeran was flung into chains, and the abbey was 
plundered by the King's soldiers. The Pope sided 
with the Bishop and excommunicated King Conrad ; 


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the murderer Hohenfels was killed by a thunderbolt 
later on. 

I went to Regensburg some years ago with the sister 
of the Oberforstrath of the reigning Prince of Thurn 
and Taxis. She was a young lady resembling Queen 
Victoria Eugenie of Spain in her fair beauty, with small, 
regular features, blue eyes, and golden hair. This lady 
lived on a property of the Prinz zu Thurn und Taxis, 
near Pardubitz in Bohemia, which her uncle, a retired 
Austrian major, managed for the Prince, who is the 
wealthiest of German princes. 

The appointment of Forstrath in Germany is a state 
appointment, and is paid at the rate of six hundred to 
one thousand pounds a year, and is usually held by 
retired officers. It is a pity that our Government does 
not act so liberally towards retired officers. The young 
lady's father held the same appointment to the reigning 
Prince as that which her brother now holds at Regens- 
burg. She spoke the Czech language perfectly, which 
is a very rare thing with a German, on account of 
its difficulty of pronunciation. The Princess of Thurn 
and Taxis was an elder sister of the Empress of 

On leaving Regensburg the next important place is 

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Donaustauf, with its ancient castle and the temple of 
Walhalla. The town is of little interest except for its 
beauty of situation. The old castle was the residence 
of the Prince-Bishops of Regensburg. The gardens are 
kept in perfect order by the Prince of Thurn and Taxis, 
who has his beautiful summer residence here. The 
Walhalla is built on a series of terraces, and on the 
highest, facing the river, stand the Doric columns of 
the temple. The interior corresponds with the grandeur 
of the exterior. In the centre is a statue of the King 
of Bavaria who founded it, and round the walls are 
niches for busts of celebrated men. There is a chamber 
called " Halle der Erwartung," where busts of living 
celebrities are admitted. The roof of this temple is of 
wrought iron, lined with brass plates, painted after the 
ancient Etruscan fashion, and richly gilded 

Schloss Worth, the occasional residence of the Prince 
of Thurn and Taxis, which was formerly a bishop's 
palace, is the next object that arrests attention. Like 
most of the palaces and castles, it has been bought and 
sold, pledged and redeemed, many times. Nearly oppo- 
site Worth, on the right bank of the Danube, is a small 
town, Pf iitter. Worth is very pretty with its white 
summer-houses, vineyards, gardens, and orchards, and 


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is a pleasant place during the hot weather. There is an 
image of the Virgin Mary in a church here which is 
said to have been brought there on the wings of angels 
from a neighbouring chapel. 

Straubing has an interesting town hall which has a 
tower two hundred feet high surmounted by a tin spire 
with four smaller pinnacles at the corners. Its erection 
was in 1208. In the churchyard is a small chapel having 
a red marble tablet with an inscription to the memory 
of Agnes Bernauer, who is the subject of a popular 


Es reiten drei Reiter zu Miinchen heraus, 
Sie reiten wohl von der Bernauer ihr Haus, 
Bernauerin, bist du drinnen ? 
Ja drinnen ? 

Next we come to the Benedictine monastery of Ober 
Altaich, which is close upon the river. The round castle 
of Bogenberg is on the left bank. The last robber chief 
who inhabited this castle was converted through a 
statue of the Virgin, and it is said that he abandoned 
his wicked life, discharged his bandits, and gave his 
money to the Church. The church, owing to this statue, 
was a favourite place of pilgrimage, and even crowned 
heads offered gifts to the Virgin of Bogen. 

Metten, on the same side of the river, belonged to the 

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Benedictine monks, and dates from the reign of Charle- 
magne. The monarch is said to have met a hermit in 
the neighbourhood, who erected a small oratory there 
in honour of the Archangel Michael. When surprised 
by the King while he was cutting wood, the hermit 
suspended his hatchet on a sunbeam. The King asked 
the holy man to name a request, whereupon the 
latter suggested that a monastery would look well 
there ; and the King laid the first stone of Kloster 

The town of Deggendorf is situated in a rich and 
lovely valley, through the centre of which the river 
rushes. Pilgrims flock to Deggendorf on St. Michael's 
eve, when absolution is granted to all comers, uTmemory 
of a miracle that happened in 1337. The host was in- 
sulted by some Jews, who brought the wafer and scratched 
it with thorns till it bled. The image of a child appeared, 
and they tried to cram it down their throats, but were 
prevented by the vision of the Child ; then they flung 
it into a well, which was surrounded by a radiant glory. 
Pope Innocent VIII, in 1489, issued his Bull for the 
general absolution. 

Not far from Deggendorf the river Iser joins the 
Danube. The nunnery at Osterhofen, Winzer Castle, 


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and Hofkirchen now attract one's attention. Hofkirchen 
was a stronghold of robber chiefs, who plundered the 
vessels that came their way. After Vilshofen, which 
is picturesquely situated, the scenery becomes more and 
more interesting. The river becomes gradually narrower, 
till the rocks on either side rise almost perpendicularly 
from the water, which now has the appearance of a rapid 
torrent filled with foam while it rolls onwards in its 

When the Crusaders were descending the river, on 
their way to rescue the Holy Land from its oppressors, 
the devil was so enraged that he plucked up rocks from 
the cliffs and threw them into the river, trying to pre- 
vent the Crusaders' progress. But every man made the 
sign of the cross, and the devil crept away. So immense 
was the first stone he threw that for ages it caused the 
river to swell in this part. Austrian and Bavarian 
engineers were able finally to mitigate this to a certain 

Passau is the frontier town of Austria between Bavaria 
and Lower Austria. This town is remarkable for the 
beauty of its scenery. From the castle of the Oberhaus, 
commanding the whole town, the bridges, the Dom, the 
view is very imposing. Passau in point of situation has 

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often been compared with Coblentz, but the former town 
is more picturesquely situated. 

There was a famous spell called the " Passau charm " 
during the Thirty Years' War, by which warriors secured 
themselves by swallowing a piece of paper on which was 
written the sentence : " Teufel hilf mir ; Liebe und 
Seele geb ich dir " (Devil help me ; body and soul I give 
thee). The spell did not operate, however, till the 
following day ; and he who swallowed it, and died be- 
fore the expiration of that period, was supposed to go 
to the devil. 

Almost the entire way from Vilshofen the exterior of 
the houses along the Danube reminds one of the houses 
round Salzburg. The cathedral is on the promenade, 
and in front of it is a statue of King Max of Bavaria. 
There used to be a convent for English girls at Passau, 
but I know not whether it is still in existence. 

Hals Castle is near Passau, on the Ilz, and there is a 
legend attached to the castle. Rudolph of Habsburg 
and Luitprundt went to fight the Turk in the Holy 
Land and were both killed. When the lady of the castle 
of Hals heard this news she drooped like a flower, and 
died the following day. The view of the Inn joining the 
Danube is exceedingly beautiful at Passau. Between 


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the two rivers lies Passau, like an island ; the rivers are 
about two thousand feet in width at this point. When 
I arrive at Passau from Germany it is always with a 
feeling of delight, but when I pass it on my way out of 
Austria it is almost always with a feeling of sadness 
and regret. 

From Passau the Danube continues for a mile through 
a narrow level country, and then the mountains on both 
sides approach nearer together. On the right bank one 
notices Krsempenstein with its ruined castle, situated on 
high rocks, and a quarter of a mile beyond the village of 
Pirschwang. The river becomes deeper and more rapid. 
Then conies the Jochenstein, a rock projecting from the 
Danube. This rock bears an obelisk with the arms of 
Austria and Bavaria. The river now approaches Engel- 
hardzell. The banks continue high, and are moun- 
tainous and rocky, with trees, while the precipices form 
high walls. 

At Aschbach the steep granite mountains and rocky 
precipices gradually draw back, and the river enters the 
level valley of Feldkirchen. There is quite a number of 
islands, sands, and shallow places in this part. Below 
Aschbach the river is three hundred and forty fathoms 
wide and two fathoms deep; but from Schudern to the 

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Geisau it has a width of one thousand fathoms and a 
depth of eleven feet ; and near Kattenstein it is one 
hundred fathoms broad. 

The Danube is divided, then, into many arms, with 
a multitude of small islands covered with quite a pro- 
fusion of willows. Near Ottensheim the river measures 
at some points six thousand feet in width, at others ten 
thousand. One of the most striking objects from Passau 
to Linz is the Schloss Kraempenstein. It stands on a 
rocky precipice with a forest in the background. The 
scenery is highly picturesque. The castle was formerly 
a residence of the Prince-Bishops of Passau. This castle 
is called Schneiderschossel in the district, from its con- 
nection with a tailor, who in attempting to throw a 
dead goat over a precipice lost his balance and fell from 
the rocks. His body was carried down the current in 
the presence of his patron, for whom he had been making 
a suit of clothes. Afterwards it was found that the goat 
was none other than the devil. He had assumed the 
appearance of a dead goat to entrap the poor tailor, 
who did not throw the animal into the river, but was 
himself thrown from the battlements. The goat was 
seen within a few minutes after the catastrophe, half 
running, half flying up the steep rocks. The incident 


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was told to the Bishop, who shook his head three times, 
and, making a sign of the cross, ordered holy water to 
be sprinkled over the precipice, and the goat was no 
longer seen. But early in the morning, when the clothes 
were measured for the bishop, it was discovered that the 
crafty "Schneider" (tailor) had stolen at least a third 
of the material. Every one was amazed, but now all 
was explained satisfactorily : the devil had carried 
off the tailor in the midst of his villainy. Tailors 
have become strictly honest in Austria since those 

The Jochenstein is an isolated rock in the middle of 
the Danube, and has the arms of Bavaria and Austria 
engraved on it. This rock formerly marked the boundary 
line between Austria and Bavaria. There is a small 
building upon it something like a chapel. Engelhardzell, 
which has become the hunting seat of Prince Wrede, 
was celebrated for its convent. I have often had the 
pleasure of meeting the Prince in Austria, though he is 
a Bavarian prince. The convent used to be called 
" Cella Angelorum," or Church of the Angels. Nearly 
opposite to this is the ancient tower of Ried, a former 
boundary line between Austria and Bavaria. 

Rana Riedl, on the left bank of the river, is one of 


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the few castles inhabited now; it has a turreted roof, 
and improves the landscape. At the summit of a pro- 
montory, at the base of which the Danube roars like a 
cataract, are the ruins of Kirschbaum. Opposite this 
promontory is the mill of Schlagen, leading to Aschbach, 
which is nearer by road than by river. 

The Danube is now half its previous width, and is 
shut in by wooded mountains like precipices, from five 
hundred to one thousand feet in height. The river 
turns and twists in every direction for the next fifteen 
miles. The current is fearfully rapid, forming whirl- 
pools. This part of the Danube is beautiful beyond 
description, what with the stupendous precipices tower- 
ing above one and the rushing of the waters, which are 
of a lovely greenish blue mixed with the pearly white 
of the foam. 

The next object of interest is the Castle or Palace 
Neuhaus belonging to the family of Schaumburg. It is 
an imposing building, and all the land about belongs 
to the castle. Aschach on the opposite bank, with its 
Schloss and lofty tower, improves the landscape con- 
siderably. In the background among pine forests are 
the towers of Schaumburg. The domains of the Counts 
of Schaumburg extended beyond Linz, in fact, nearly 


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over the whole valley of the Danube between this and 
Passau. This magnificent ruin now belongs to Prince 
Stahrenberg, who is in the Arciren Guard regiment of 
Austria, similar to the English Life Guards. The 
Danube has numerous woody islands here, which im- 
prove the scenery. The convent of Wilhering, formerly 
a Benedictine convent, is on the right bank, at the foot 
of the Kirnberg. The whole of the district as far as 
Linz is richly wooded, and in several points highly 

The Danube now skirts the Zauberthal, a valley of 
immense beauty, and on the right bank, as one ap- 
proaches near Linz, there are cottages, gardens, summer- 
houses, fitted up in the most luxurious and elegant 
style. In holiday times the inhabitants of Linz go 
there in great numbers to enjoy the country and to 
pass the time away from their business. 

The most striking point is the Kalvarienberg, or 
Mount Calvary, the rocky pinnacle of which is sur- 
mounted by an enormous crucifix. At the base are 
small chapels and villas, picturesquely situated. 

Soon after passing this romantic part of the river, 
one comes to Linz, where the fairy-like bridge makes 
one fancy that the broad expanse of the Danube is 


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chained by gossamer, and that the people coming there 
are but spiders on their way, or perhaps flies attracted 
by the spider's web. 

Linz was a fortified town in 1098, and in 1106 a bridge 
was erected. Richard Cceur de Lion was entertained 
at the castle at Linz on his return from Diirrenstein. 
There is a great number of fortified towers, which 
command the heights to the extent of nearly a league. 
The fortifications are of comparatively recent date, 
accomplished under Prince Max of Este, who had bas- 
tions and isolated forts erected, somewhat similar to 
those of Coblentz on the Rhine. There are thirty towers 
around Linz, and communication between them by 
covered ways. Every tower is of itself a fortress. 

The public buildings of Linz are not very important, 
the most noticeable being the Landhaus, formerly a 
monastery, which now is the house of justice. The 
great market-place is one of the finest squares in Austria. 
The church of St. Matthias is the most important one. 
The Trinity column in the centre of the market-place 
is another object of interest, and was erected as 
a votive monument out of gratitude for deliverance 
from the plague and the Turks. Die heilige Dreieinig- 
keit consists of the statues of Jupiter, Neptune, 


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and the Christian God. The bridge which crossed 
the Danube and formed so beautiful a feature in the 
landscape was built about the end of the fifteenth cen- 
tury. The new bridge of iron construction, which was 
built in 1872, is seven hundred feet in length and com- 
mands a very beautiful view. A far finer view can be 
had, however, across the river, near the tower, from 
which the country around can be seen. Close to the 
bridge there are two railroads, one to Budweis and the 
other to Wels. There is another line leading to Ischl 
and Gmunden of more recent date. 

Linz has been celebrated for the beauty of its women 
for a long time. I happened to know a Linzerin in 
Vienna, who a celebrated Hofschaurspieler at the 
Burg Theatre, Herr von Ernst, said was the most lovely 
woman he had ever seen in his life. He had been in 
London with the company of the Burg Theatre, but 
still admired this Linzerin more than any beauties he had 
seen in London. This particular lady, " Frau Bern- 
hardt," was tall with a very fine figure, and had blue 
eyes with dark brown hair, and a somewhat retrousse 
nose with a glorious complexion and a pretty mouth 
and lovely teeth. When she smiled it had almost the 
same effect upon one as the sun's rays have when they 
K 145 

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suddenly appear on a hopelessly wet day. She always 
reminded me of Bertha Linda, the famous danseuse of 
the Vienna opera, who married the well-known painter, 
Makart, and after his death became a countess by her 

On the right of Linz the landscape assumes a new 
aspect, the green meadows and pasture lands extend 
as far as one can see. On the opposite bank the scenery 
is more like the Alps. There are mountains, woods, 
and small towns and villages. Numerous islands richly 
wooded divide the stream into separate channels, and 
add much to the beauty of the landscape. 

I always stop at the Hotel Erzherzog Karl, the prin- 
cipal hotel at Linz, which is quite close to the landing- 
place of the steamers, and commands a delightful view 
on the Danube from the rooms above. The last time 
I was at Linz a Russian circus attracted much atten- 
tion there ; I went to it, but it was no different from 
any other. 

I stayed several days at Linz on this occasion, going 
to Ischl by train one day and returning to Linz in the 
evening. I took the steamer down the Danube to 
Vienna, starting in the morning at eight o'clock. It 
is due to arrive at the latter place about seven in the 


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evening, though constantly the steamer is late, as it 
was on this occasion. 

We arrived at about ten o'clock. The delay was 
due to the tide, as one has to change steamboats on 
entering the small river Wien, near Vienna. The large 
steamers cannot enter the harbour of Vienna owing 
to the shallowness of the water. However, we made 
acquaintances of some Austrian cavalry officers on board 
the large steamboat, so the time passed very pleasantly. 
I was accompanied by an English lady and a little girl 
of eight years old, who speaking only English and French 
wondered what gibberish, as she called it, we were 

The first town on the right of note is Traun, where a 
tributary, the Traun, pours its waters into the Danube. 
On the left we pass the castle of Steyereck, a massive 
building. Villages close to the water's edge, and 
churches up on high, or some castle, are the chief objects 
which appear, as we descend towards Enns. 

The old town of Enns, with its lofty tower and 
spires, is on the right bank. It is a Roman construc- 
tion, and dates from Marcellinus' time. The walls 
of Enns were said to be built by Leopold out of the 
ransom paid for Richard Cceur de Lion. Nearly op- 


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posite Enns stands the ancient castle of Spielberg, 
now a ruin. The river at this point increases to a rapid, 
and requires much skill and precaution for small boats. 
Before Spielberg comes the castle of Tillysberg and 
monastery of St. Florian, both being of interest. The 
former named after Marshal Tilly, to whom the Emperor 
presented it. Marshal Tilly boasted before the battle 
of Leipzig of three things, that he had never been in 
love, never been drunk, and had never lost a battle. 

St. Florian, the fire-extinguishing saint, was thrown 
into the river with a stone tied round his neck. The 
monastery stands on a commanding eminence ; it has 
a splendid organ. Nieder Waldsee, on the right, with 
its Schloss and lofty tower, is a modern structure nicely 

Greinberg, covering a rocky eminence, was built by 
Heinrich von Chreime and dates from the twelfth cen- 
tury. Below Grein commences the rapid called " Greiner 
schwall," where the river, walled in by precipices, is 
terribly agitated, making a deafening noise. This 
defile leads to the Strudel and Wirbel, the most dan- 
gerous and the loveliest part of the whole river. The 
scenery is really quite sublime in its intense beauty. 
The Strudel was very dangerous in former days, but 


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now large steamers pass it without difficulty. The 
colour of the water is changed ; it is filled with foam 
and agitated like boiling water. In the centre of the 
river there stands an immense rock with a tower, on 
the summit of which is an enormous cross ; in olden 
times boatmen offered up a prayer there ; but now 
the danger has been removed, and the cross on the 
Worthier Island is passed without any recognition. 
The grandeur of the scene is very great at this particu- 
lar spot. There are wonderful echoes from the rocks, 
which reverberate with the almost deafening noise of 
the waters. Castles, rocks, and precipices descend to 
the edge of the Danube, and enchant the eye of the 

The Worther Island is about two thousand feet in 
length, and a thousand feet broad. It is surrounded 
by white sand, which looks very pretty against the dark 
rocks on the shore. The old castle of Werfenstein, 
which surmounts the rocky height, is now a ruin. Castle 
Struden, nearly opposite, is also a ruin, but presents a 
striking picture of olden times. The precipice on which 
it stands projects near the river. These castles were 
built in the eleventh century, and were inhabited by 
robbers. The castle of Struden has a massive square 


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tower, and was fortified. There is a perilous rock called 
Wildriss near the middle of the stream. The whirlpool 
of the Wirbel, which is about three thousand feet from 
the latter, was most dangerous in olden times, but at 
present, though it may appear so, as it certainly does, 
there is no risk in passing down it in the large 

In the centre of the Danube is an island called Haus- 
stein, about one hundred and fifty yards long and fifty 
broad, which divides the river that descends with terrific 
force, and forms the Wirbel, and is really the main 
cause of it. The sombre and mysterious aspect of this 
part of the river, and its wild scenery, alarmed people 
in former days, and at night sounds, issuing from every 
ruin, were heard above the roar of the Danube. The 
tower in which these noises were heard was called 
" The Devil's Tower." When the devil was dis- 
lodged later on he pronounced his malediction on the 

Ottensheim overlooks the river, with Efferding on 
the opposite shore. When the river was infested by 
robbers the Countess Walchun founded a hospital 
of St. Nicholas for the reception of travellers, and left 
all her property to the poor. St. Nicholas is a small 


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town picturesquely situated. The ancient town of 
Sarblingstein was one of the strongest in the country 
in ancient times. 

Now we arrive at the Schloss Persenberg, one of the 
most picturesque on the Danube. This lovely castle 
stands high up on a rock. The castle is one of the oldest 
in Austria. It belonged to the Margrave Enzelschalk, 
who was found guilty of high treason and had his eyes 
put out and his estates confiscated. 

Henry III passed'; the Strudel and Wirbel, and his 
suite were terrified to see the apparition of the devil, 
who, addressing the Bishop, told him that his career 
was drawing to an end. But the Bishop crossed him- 
self and sent the devil to the rightabout. Shortly after 
the royal barge stopped at Persenberg, and the lady of 
the castle conducted Henry III to his apartments. 
Countess Richlinde said she was going to give the castle 
to a member of her own family. Scarcely had she 
spoken when the floor of the dining-room gave way 
and the occupants were precipitated into the room 
below. The Emperor escaped with bruises, but the 
Countess Richlinde, the abbot of Ebersberg, and Bishop 
Bruno were so severely injured that they died within a 
few hours of the catastrophe. 

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The gallery contains several pictures of value. The 
Emperor Franz of Austria spent many summers at this 
castle. In the inner court is a basin of fine sparkling 
water. The view from the towers, whence one can see 
the snow-clad Alps, the Schneeberg towards Salzburg, 
is particularly grand. Behind the castle is the Imperial 
garden, tastefully laid out. The flower garden is one 
of the most beautiful that can be conceived. 

The next objects are Saussensteim, a former monastery, 
the village of Murbach, and the church, Maria Taferl, 
the lofty twin towers of which crown the mountain on 
the left. About one hundred thousand pilgrims visited 
this shrine at one time in the year. 

Maria Taferl receives its name from an oak tree on 
which was an image of the Virgin. When the tree 
died a peasant wanted to cut down the trunk, but the 
axe hit his foot. Then he saw the image, and being 
penitent, through the image interposing for him, he was 
cured of the wound. 

Castle Weiteneek, which now appears on the left bank 
of the river, is a relic of feudal magnificence. There 
are two villages, Gross Pochlarn on the right bank, 
and Klein Pochlarn on the left, with the town of Ard- 
stadten on the heights. Of the Bechlaren Burg only 


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an old gateway and some towers remain to attest its 
former grandeur. 

Round this point of land the royal fleet came. On 
the prow of the foremost stood the valiant Markgraf 
Rudiger of Pochlarn bending eagerly forward to dis- 
tinguish amongst the beauties at the open windows of the 
castle the fair forms of his beloved wife and daughter. 
Beneath the rich canopy that shades the deck of yonder 
bark, with gilded oars, sits the peerless bride of the 
mighty Etzel, but she does not hear the shout of wel- 
come that rises on the shore. Her brow is clouded, 
her ruby lip quivers, tears like liquid diamonds tremble 
on her long, dark, silken eyelashes ; the form of the 
noble Siegfried is ever before her ; she hears but the 
voice of her murdered champion calling for vengeance ; 
she sees but the ghastly wound which treachery inflicted, 
bleeding afresh at the approach of the dark Hughen. 
She seems beautiful even in sorrow, and warrants 
the description of Novalis in "Heinrich von Ofter- 
dingen " : 

The rosy red bloomed sweetly upon her lovely cheek, 
Even as the moon outshineth every twinkling star ; 

So before her maidens stood that lady bright, 
And higher swell'd the spirit of every gazing knight. 

By her side stands a priest, the Bishop of Passau, uncle 

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to the Queen, and related to the noble Rudiger. The 
pale youth near him is his clerk, Conrad, who assisted 
him to write the adventures of the Nibelungen. On the 
other side stands Duke Eckewart escorting his liege 
lady to Hungary ; the remainder of the fleet bears the 
five hundred chosen knights of Burgundy, who follow 
his standard. Such was Pochlarn in former days ! 

Molk has the most splendid edifice on the Danube, 
a monastery of fine Grecian architecture similar to a 
magnificent temple of antiquity. The sculptures are 
modern, the gilding bright, and the fresco tints as vivid 
as if they were new. Christ Church College at Oxford 
and Trinity College at Cambridge pale in comparison ; 
neither of the latter can compare with Molk's cupola- 
crowned church and the range of chambers which run 
parallel with the town. The heights of the opposite 
bank of the Danube crown the view of this glorious 
edifice in a manner which cannot be excelled. 

The front of the building is of a pure Italian style. 
The library, in the style of architecture and materials 
employed, is one of the finest rooms in the world. The 
wainscot and shelves are of walnut of different shades, 
inlaid, surmounted by gilt ornaments. The columns 
are Corinthian and gilt. Everything is in harmony. 

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The library is one hundred feet in length, and in width 
forty feet, and it was filled formerly with books of the 
fifteenth century. The church is the very perfection 
of Roman architecture, and is in the shape of a cross. 
At the end of each transept is a rich altar. The pews, 
arranged in English fashion but more tastefully, are 
on each side of the nave on entering, with enough space 
between them. The pulpit from top to bottom is 
completely covered with gold. The whole is in the 
most perfect taste. In fact, the church is in a blaze of 
gold, and the mere gilding cost eight thousand pounds. 

Schonbuckel with its ruins is interesting. The castle 
occupies the summit of a granite rock, projecting to- 
wards the river, and has three towers which impend 
over a terrific precipice. The convent has a tower in 
the centre and lawns in the background. There is a 
small island in the river, which is pleasing to the eye. 
A tower which is square, terminating in a pointed cupola, 
is remarkable, and for a crime committed by a former 
owner, is the nightly haunt of a spirit, which is often 
heard even now. The fair Cunigonda was killed by her 
husband with an axe, when a voice shouted through 
the hall, " She is guiltless of any crime." 

Aggstein Castle is one of the most picturesque build- 

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ings on the Danube. It is very ancient. Among its 
chiefs was Schreckenwald, the most expert robber of his 
time and the terror of the neighbourhood. He ordered 
his prisoners to be precipitated into his " rose garden," 
as he called it. This garden was a ravine from which 
no one could escape. One man, however, is said to have 
escaped. This was the owner of a neighbouring castle, 
who afterwards attacked Schreckenwald hi the night. 
The latter thought it was an evil spirit. Schreckenwald 
exclaimed, " Though you are the devil himself, I shall 
be lord of Aggstein ! " Nevertheless, Schreckenwald 
was killed and suspended from a beam of his own en- 
trance hall. People still talk of the young knight's 
escape from the rose garden. Another robber, who was 
the terror even of the Duke of Austria, lived there since. 
A baron approached the castle, and the robber thinking 
that it was a merchant asked what merchandise he had. 
The baron replied, " Silk brocade and wine," and when 
asked to deliver them up, he threw back the canvas, 
whereupon thirty lances were levelled at the robber's 
breast, and the robber chief, Hadmar von Aggstein, 
was taken prisoner. 

Diirrenstein is a massive construction with towers, 
and was the prison of Richard Cceur de Lion. This 


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fortress is at the summit of a rugged group of rocks. 
It was occupied by Hadmar, Lord of Aggstein, already 
mentioned. Richard Cceur de Lion, on his return from 
the Holy Land, was captured in the village of Erdberg, 
near Vienna, for hauling down and trampling upon the 
standard of Austria. He was placed under Hadmar von 
Kneuring, who carried him to the fortress of Durren- 
stein, where he remained several months. Then he was 
confined in the castle of Trifels, when on agreeing to the 
payment of a ransom he was liberated. Some writers 
affirm, however, that the ransom was never paid. 

Stein has a rather important Rathhaus of noble de- 
sign. A little further down on the same side is Krems, 
with its monastery on an eminence. Its tower is like a 
mosque. The church is considered one of the best speci- 
mens of Gothic architecture in Europe. 

The monastery of Gottweih, crowning the summit of 
a hill, is built on a large scale with lofty towers. The 
view from the towers is magnificent. The interior of the 
monastery is very fine, but not to be compared with 
Molk or even St. Florian. It is not so rich as that of 
Krems. Napoleon took possession of this monastery. 
He slept here, and was satisfied with his reception, but 
the abbot was glad when he left. Below Krems the 

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scenery is not so fine, and is interspersed with numerous 
wooded islands. 

The castle of Hollenburg and the chapel of Wetter- 
kreuz are striking objects now in view. The castle is a 
complete ruin. It belonged formerly to two robber 
chiefs named Wettan and Frohenauer. The castle was 
set on fire by the populace when belonging to these 

Greiffenstein is also a ruined castle. The view from 
the tower commands a grand panorama of mountains, 
forests, towns, and villages, and is one of the finest in 
Austria. The castle belongs now to Prince Lichtenstein, 
who with his predecessors has done much to embellish 
the grounds and partially to restore the place. Its name 
is derived from a griffin which haunted the castle. 

Another story is that the owner, returning from the 
Crusades, found his wife with her hair beautifully dressed, 
and being jealous, as he was not expected home, asked 
her for whom she had dressed her hair. As she did not 
answer satisfactorily, he had her hair cut off and herself 
thrown into the dungeons. He swore she should not be 
released till the stones at the front door were so worn 
down that he could put her locks in the hollow place. 
Then all the servants exclaimed to every one, " Greif 


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an den Stein ! " The owner, in consequence, fell down 
the steps and broke his neck, but his ghost continues to 
wander about ! 

Bisamberg next comes to view " Am Bisamberg 
floss in alien Zeiten die Donau vorbei, daher sei der 
Name Bis am berge " and Klosterneuburg on the right 
bank of the river. Bisamberg is celebrated for its vine- 
yards. A castle and church are noticeable. Korneuburg 
is a town the square towers of the church in which 
attract one at once. Klosterneuburg is at the base of 
the Kahlenberg, overlooking the river, and contains a 
monastery of the Augustine order. The church has an 
important altar covered with metal plates on which are 
etched several subjects of Scripture, executed by Werner. 
He practised the art called " niello," and is said to have 
been the inventor of it. In front of the church is a 
richly carved Gothic pillar called the " Everlasting 
Light," on account of the votive lamp which has been 
kept burning before it for ages. It commemorated the 
plague which devastated the Danube in the fourteenth 
century. Leopold IV and his wife Agnes were talking 
on religious topics, and the King said he would raise a 
sumptuous altar, but could not decide where it should 
be. He asked his wife, when a gust of wind suddenly 


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carried off her veil. The veil was searched for every- 
where, but for three months could not be found. 

One day Leopold was out boar hunting. He approached 
the river, but his horse refused to move. Finally Leopold 
fell to the ground, and he suddenly saw before him the 
lost veil of his wife. It was determined that the tree on 
which angels had placed the veil should be enclosed in 
a magnificent temple. Accordingly the monastery of 
Klosterneuburg was built, and became the admiration 
of architects. The alder tree which had preserved the 
veil was cased in gold, and branches of that sacred tree 
were carried in processions and suspended over the 
altar. Agnes founded a convent not far from the monas- 
tery, when the inhabitants of both became acquainted 
" under the veil." 

The Klosterneuburg grape is renowned for producing 
an excellent white wine. The ducal bonnet of St. Leopold 
in bronze ornaments adorns one of the gilded domes of 
the monastery, recalling to memory his good deeds. In 
the cellars is a cask that in shape and size rivals the 
great tun of Heidelberg. 

I drove from Vienna to Klosterneuburg and back in 
a fiacre with a young lady and a secretary of the French 
Embassy not very long ago. It is certainly a most 

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delightful drive through most picturesque woods nearly 
the whole way, with some charming views at times of 
the river. Klosterneuburg is quite a village, but there 
is a little cafe" there where one can take coffee or tea, 
or even have some Klosterneuburg wine, which is not 
at all bad. 

Leopoldsberg is the next object on the steamer, and 
is an environ of Vienna, and commands a full view of 
that lovely city. The cathedral, St. Stephen, with its 
spire four hundred and eighty feet high, attracts one's 
notice above all things. The great beauty of this view 
has inspired many distinguished poets and painters. 

Nussdorf is a well-known town, and has a very good 
cafe". The town is the subject of an extremely popular 
song, a great deal sung in Vienna even at the present 
time " Nach Nussdorf bin i g' fahrn." It is in the 
Viennese dialect. 

The English lady with the little girl, who accompanied 
me on the steamer, was much struck with the smart 
appearance of the Austrian cavalry officers, and she 
admired a cavalry lieutenant on board, who fell in love 
with her too, but they could not converse together ; he 
was of Polish nationality. During my first voyage from 
Linz to Vienna I suddenly perceived on the steamer a 
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young girl who had been staying with her parents at 
the Hotel Erzherzog Karl at Linz. I did not under- 
stand the language she was talking, but succeeded in 
making her acquaintance on board. She was one of 
the loveliest girls I have ever seen, having beautiful 
violet-blue eyes, long eyelashes, and hair, which she 
wore hanging down her back, of a perfect golden colour 
tinged with red. Her features were quite Grecian in 
their regularity. I found that she was a Pole, and her 
Christian name was Sosia. She told me several inter- 
esting things about Polish life. For instance, young 
girls had scarcely any liberty, and they married chiefly 
to gain their freedom, and rarely married the man they 
liked. I dined next to her and her family on board the 
steamer, and talked to her all the way from Linz to 
Vienna. She belonged to the Polish nobility, and had 
been spending the summer months at Aussee, and the 
winter before that at Nice with the Countess Zamoyska. 
Meeting the daughter of the Statthalter of Galicia a 
year later, I heard that Sosia was the belle that year 
at Warsaw. I visited her family when I was in Vienna, 
though they soon went to Austrian Poland. Afterwards 
I received very charming letters from Sosia in French. 
Of the Danube my recollection was that there were 


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numerous castles of which I constructed some in my 
imagination, and that the river was of a beautiful violet- 
blue, the colour of Sosia's eyes. Of this I was convinced. 
It was not till years later that I discovered the Danube 
is not as the song to which Johann Strauss has com- 
posed his delightful waltz says : " An der schonen 
blauen Donau " of a blue colour ; it is more of a 
greenish hue, with a faint tint of blue in it when the 
sun shines upon the waters. 




I have already described Vienna in my first 
volume, " Society Recollections in Paris and 
Vienna," I will merely say that from the Kahlenberg, 
which one can get to by steam tramway from Vienna, 
ascending the very steep mountain in the most marvel- 
lously quick manner, one can obtain a grand view of 
the town of Vienna and the surrounding country. 

There is a very good restaurant at the Kahlenberg, 
where a military band usually plays of an evening 
during one's dinner. In summer all kinds of entertain- 
ment are to be had. On some days a beauty prize is 
competed for by the village beauties. Occasionally 
Vienna girls go in for it, and it is very diverting to a 

The Gardens of Schonbrunn, the palace at which the 


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present Emperor Franz Josef usually resides when in 
Vienna (and not at the Hof Burg), are open to the public. 
The gardens are laid out very much in imitation of 
Versailles ; in one part there are several wild beasts 
in cages. The private theatre at Schonbrunn, joining 
the palace, is for the Emperor's guests, whom he him- 
self invites. Every year there is a performance given 
by the nobility called the " Aristokraten Vorstellung," 
which is generally exceedingly good and well worth 
seeing. Friends of mine performed there when I was 
last in Vienna, and they told me how very liberal His 
Majesty was in supplying sumptuous champagne suppers 
every night during the month of the rehearsal for those 
performing. Not only that, but court carriages were 
placed at their disposal to drive them to and from 

There are very fine gardens around Vienna, some of 
which are private. For instance, at Hetzendorf, at 
Hietzing, and the Laxenburg Gardens, which latter 
belong to the palace of that name. The palace was 
inhabited by the Crown Princess Stephanie before^her 
marriage with Count Lonyay. There is a private garden 
at Penzing remarkable for its collection of roses, and 
the camellia is seen there in all its greatest beauty. 


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Strangers are always admitted on presenting their cards 
or saying who they are. 

There are some very delightful drives along the river 
from Vienna, for instance, to Rodaun, passing through 
Hietzing and Linz on the way. The road is ornamented 
with a succession of country villas, vineyards, and de- 
lightful gardens. The drive to the Wiener Wald is 
equally charming, and it can also be reached by train. 
On the Siidbahn to the Hinterbriihl is a most exquisite 
excursion. The country round Hinterbriihl is equal in 
its beauty to parts of Switzerland, with its woods and 
mountainous country ; besides, the vegetation is so 

Hinterbriihl is a favourite sojourn in the summer 
months for Austrians from Vienna. A French cavalry 
officer, Comte de Saint Juste, told me that he had never 
seen anything in France to compare with the exquisite 
beauty of Hinterbriihl, and I can say the same with 
regard to England. I often went there on a Sunday, 
returning to Vienna in the evening ; or sometimes I 
would dine out of doors with a lady at one of the restau- 
rants in the woods. 

Baden is a very favourite resort in summer. It is 
one hour by rail from Vienna, and is famous for its warm 

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springs loaded with sulphur, which are very good in 
cases of rheumatism. Baden is extremely pretty with its 
very fine avenue of acacia trees on the chief promenade, 
where the band plays, and these throw out in the evening 
a most delightful perfume. 

The band plays during the summer months at Baden 
from five till half-past seven, and it is now led by the 
celebrated composer Komczak. Of course, the monde 
elegant and beauty of Baden walk up and down or sit 
under trees listening to the strains of this good orchestra. 
I have seen some very pretty girls at Baden, but they 
have generally told me that they came from Vienna, 
and were there only for the summer months. 

The Kursaal is somewhat like the one at Ischl, with- 
out the lovely view the latter has, but it is very pleasant 
to take one's dinner on the terrace in the fresh air in 
the evening, especially in very hot weather. Baden is 
always intensely warm, as it is shut in by the surround- 
ing mountains. Of late years it is much frequented by 
Jews ; and many Christian families do not care to go 
there without being obliged to do so for rheumatism 
and other ailments. One can get to Voslau from Baden 
by the electric train in half an hour. The former place 
is also a favourite summer resort, being situated higher 


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than Baden, but apart from the beauty of its position, 
it really offers very little or no amusement. I went 
there by an electric train. It was the first time in my 
life that I had been in one, and it was the year that 
Volodyovski won the Derby. I can remember that 
incident because I fancied this horse and ought to have 
backed it, but hesitated unfortunately. 

There is a band which plays at Voslau, but it is 
scarcely worth listening to, being so feeble in numbers, 
and it plays out of doors before a very limited public. 
The environs of Vienna are more charming and beautiful 
than those of any other capital in Europe, especially 
during the summer months. An English author says : 
" The Viennese are undoubtedly the most musical people 
in the world. To the lovers of music, waltzing, and 
good eating Vienna is a terrestrial paradise, where all 
waltz a merveille, every one plays the piano well and 
are unanimous in their respect pour la cuisine, which, 
although open to epicurean criticism, is understood ex- 
tremely well here. The waltzers whirl round with 
wonderful rapidity, like their own ' Wirbel,' the whirl- 
pool. Nothing can exceed the decorum and manners 
observed by all, from the dame de la cour to the blanchis- 


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From Vienna to Pesth, along the Danube, the castle 
of Theben stands on a precipice, and is interesting since 
the castle is of Roman origin. The castle belongs to 
Prince Palffy, and was demolished by the French in 
1809. On the right bank stands the Schlosshof, once a 
favourite villa of Prince Eugene. One of the finest 
objects is the castle of Haimburg, which crowns a neigh- 
bouring hill and commands a view over the whole country. 
Peter the Cruel lived here, concealing himself; and it 
was also inhabited by Margaret Princess of Babenberg. 

In an excursion into Karnthen a lord of Theben fell 
in love with a lady of Karnthen. Preparations were 
made for the marriage, but one evening the count was 
told that the lovely Bertha had been carried off by an 
abbot to the convent of Issenberg. The count dashed 
off with some men towards the forest. The lady was 
rescued, and the wedding took place the next day. Just 
as the Benediction had been pronounced the sound of 
arms was heard, and a messenger announced that the 
enemy was within the walls. The bridegroom hastened 
with the bride to the so-called " Nun's Tower." There 
they were surprised by the bride's uncle, the abbot of 
Issenberg. The bride asked her uncle to spare her 
husband. " Never ! " replied the abbot, and opened 


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the gate. At this moment she rushed into her husband's 
arms and stood at the verge of the precipice. " Come 
back ! " said the abbot. " Never, till you have given 
your pledge." " Pledge ! " exclaimed the abbot, and 
rushed towards the count, but he only grasped the 
empty air. The beautiful forms had vanished from his 
sight, and when he looked over the precipice it was to 
behold the waves as they closed over his victims. 

Pressburg has its ruined palace upon a height above 
the town which stands out sharply, and is seen at once. 
The palace, inhabited now by the Archduchess Isabella 
and the Archduke Frederick of Austria, is a fine build- 
ing, as well as the castle belonging to Graf Esterhdzy. 
The women are picturesque with their gay-coloured 
cotton handkerchiefs pinned round their heads, and the 
men in their white loose trousers reaching to the knee 
only, with high Hungarian boots, similar to those worn 
by the Blue Hungarian band in London. 

The cathedral of Pressburg is a Gothic structure of 
great antiquity where the kings of Hungary were 
crowned with much solemnity. The new king was con- 
ducted on horseback to a mound on the left bank of 
the Danube. He ascended the eminence, and, drawing 
the sword of St. Stephan, he made the sign of the cross 


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east, west, north, south, pledging himself to defend his 
subjects, at whatever point danger might threaten. 

Komorn is a large town with five Roman Catholic 
churches and one Lutheran. Komorn is strongly forti- 
fied. There is a saying that when summoned to capitu- 
late the usual answer is " Komm morgen." A female 
figure exists in one street with the inscription " Komm- 
morn," a jeu de mot. There is a great number of water 
and wind mills to be seen on this part of the Danube, 
and the country is for the most part flat and uninterest- 
ing. Nesmely is celebrated for its wine, the vineyards 
belonging chiefly to the Counts Zichy and Esterhazy. 

Gran, the seat of an archbishop, primate of Hungary, 
with a large population, now comes to view. It contains 
several churches. Archbishop Alesander von Rudnay 
resolved to erect a cathedral at his own cost that should 
rival even that of St. Peter's at Rome. He lived to see 
his resolution carried into effect, devoting his princely 
income of one hundred thousand pounds per annum to 
this work of piety, and the cathedral is unequalled by 
anything attempted in Europe during the last two 

Wissegrad is a ruined castle formerly a residence of 
the old Magyar kings. It stands on a lofty hill over- 


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looking the Danube. King Salomon was kept a prisoner 
here by his " affectionate cousin " Ladislaus. It was 
destroyed by the Turks under Sultan Solyman. 

Waitzen, or Vatz, is an important town with a bishop's 
see, having a cathedral in the Italian style remarkable 
for its dome and portico. The environs are picturesque, 
being surrounded by vineyards and high hills. 

The town of St. Andra is the next object of interest, 
and is noticeable by its seven towers. It also contains 
some mineral springs. 

Buda, or Of en, is where the Emperor resides when in 
Hungary. In the chapel attached to the palace are pre- 
served the crown, ball and sceptre, and sword of St. 
Stephan. The approach to the palace is very steep. The 
road is planted with chestnut trees. An old Turkish round 
tower remains still at the entrance. The arch is of 
modern construction. The palace is of immense size, 
and in the Italian style. The view from the windows is 
very lovely. The gardens of the palace, with their 
flower beds and fine magnolias, are delightful. Buda 
was held by the Turks for nearly a century and a half, 
therefore it has many signs left of the Mohammedans. 

Pesth is of modern date, and joins Buda by a lovely 
suspension bridge constructed by an English engineer. 


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Pesth has wonderfully altered within the last ten years. 
The streets have been improved and large buildings 
erected, so that it has the pretension of being as lovely 
as Vienna. The shops are very good, some better than 
in Vienna ; for instance, Kugler is quite famous for 
bon-bons, which are supplied to the courts of Russia 
and Austria, and are as good as French bon-bons. 
The new opera house is a fine building. Though smaller 
than the Vienna one, it is almost equally sumptuous 
inside, and more luxurious from the outside. Several 
new streets have been built within the last few years, 
which nearly put some of the important streets of Vienna 
in the shade, if they do not quite do so. 

Hungarians tell me they consider Buda-Pesth a far 
finer town than Vienna ; and even some Austrians tell 
me the same thing. I always stop at the Hotel Konigin 
von England Angol Kyralyh<5z, with which I was most 
pleased, as I found it very comfortable and moderate 
in price, cheaper than the first-class hotels in Vienna, 
and it is well situated. I have dined at the " Hungaria," 
which is also excellent and a more modern hotel what 
we should call more up-to-date. 

The Blocksberg is crowned by a fortress with an 
observatory. The view from the Blocksberg, which is 

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at Ofen, is very striking indeed. One can see Pesth, 
the islands in the distance, the suspension bridge, and 
the steamers on the Danube. Attila is said to have 
hurled his brother, who offended him, from this rock 
into the Danube. In the neighbourhood of the Blocks- 
berg husbands are told never to consult the stars on 
St. Gerard's Eve, or their wives may become witches. 
The suspension bridge is twelve hundred and twenty- 
seven feet in length and thirty-nine feet in width, and 
was constructed by Mr. Tierney Clerk. 

The peasants usually wear a sheepskin cloak and a 
round felt hat ; some of them have a very dark skin 
indeed. What strikes a stranger most in Pesth coming 
from Vienna is that the shops are kept open there much 
later, and that Pesth resembles London or Paris in its 
night life. The theatres are not over until late, and 
when Vienna appears as if every one had gone to bed, 
Pesth, on the contrary, seems only to have begun to 
enjoy life. 

I remember once going to the Nepsinhaz Theatre, 
where I saw an operetta. After the theatre I went to 
a dancing-place, but as it was about eleven o'clock the 
place was empty. I had to wait for half an hour, and 
then I saw the Csardas danced as I had never seen it 


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danced before, with such spirit and animation. I have 
often seen the Csardas danced since at the Vienna Hofoper 
by the ballet, but I missed that strange fiery animation 
which the Hungarians, men and women, put into it 
at this small dancing - place in Pesth. Some singers 
came from the opera later on and sat at my table. To 
my surprise they drank tea with rum instead of milk, 
as the Americans do. 

Among them was a pretty young girl of fourteen, 
a dark blonde, who had a lovely contralto voice, and 
was^ afterwards quite celebrated as an operatic singer. 
Her name was Tournay Wilma, and I can recall to 
memory her marvellously sweet voice, which had such 
rich notes in it. She sang some Hungarian songs with 
a great amount of sentiment and pathos. 

At the hotel at which I was staying I do not think 
any one ever dreamt of going to bed, for I remember 
a famous Hungarian band called Racz Ban (the name 
of the leader) playing every night till daybreak. The 
way this gipsy band played Hungarian airs, the chief 
violinist especially, brought tears from some of the 
audience ; the piece selected was a Hungarian Csardas. 
The slow movement, in which the notes on the violin 
floated tremulously through the air, seemed to hold a 

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tremendous drama. One felt the approach of suffering, 
and at times the violin seemed to utter cries of absolute 
despair. The room was silent, and everybody listened 
to what the notes were relating. Suddenly the music 
ceased, when the applause became deafening. An 
English lady put a ten-pound note into the plate handed 
round by the violinist, while a Hungarian millionaire, 
who was with her, put in twice that amount. This 
particular band had received immense offers of money 
to go away from Pesth, but the owner of the band, the 
chief violinist, would never do so. I have never heard 
a Hungarian band to equal this one. 

The little opera singer told me that she had been in 
love with a doctor-in-law, who had abandoned her, 
and she was very indignant at his falseness. I tried 
to console her, but if I had then known how false lawyers 
of all countries generally are I should have told her. 
She was quite a companion to me while I was at Pesth, 
coming to my hotel with me to dine every evening; 
in fact, she wanted me to take her with me to England 
when I left the place. I was obliged to go away alone, 
being merely on leave from my regiment. Such a bright, 
lively nature, with the fiery temperament of a Hungarian 
girl, I have very rarely, if ever, met with since. Her 



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voice had all that exquisite richness which Scalchi's 
possessed. One night at the Hotel Konigin von England 
she sang Hungarian songs to me till it was nearly day- 
break, which my neighbours must have enjoyed, for they 
did not complain the next day that their rest was dis- 

Mohacs has wide streets, and at the windows of most 
houses are plenty of flowers. Erdody, Vukovar are on 
the right bank of the river. The former has a Greek 
church and a Catholic one, with the ruins of an old castle 
in which the Counts Palffy resided during the feudal 
ages. Vukovar stands at the confluence of the Vuka 
with the Danube. It has several churches, Greek and 
Roman Catholic. Opposite to this is the small town 
of Bacs, where the river of that name falls into the 
Danube. Illok is a place containing Roman works of 
art. It has a Roman Catholic and a Greek church. 
The chief object is the beautiful palace of Prince Odes- 
calchi. The Princess is an American lady and is often 
in Vienna. 

Peterwardein is two hundred feet above the river, 

and is a large town. It resembles Ehrenbreitstein, the 

Prussian fortress opposite Coblentz, and is strongly 

fortified. Carlowitz is a picturesque town ; an arch- 

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bishop of the old Greek Church lives there. Carlowitz 
contains a cathedral, an episcopal palace, and several 
large buildings. The vineyards around the place pro- 
duce the wine of that name* Semlin is the frontier 
town between Hungary and Servia. On the top of a 
mountain are the ruins of a castle of Huniades. He 
fought against the Turk heroically, so that they sur- 
named him the Devil. Opposite Semlin is the town of 
Belgrade, between the right bank of the Danube and 
the Save. To the heroic conduct of Huniades Voivode 
of Transylvania the arms of the cross are indebted for 
many victories which drove back the Turks within 
their boundaries, and rescued Servia from their iron 

Belgrade is a rather fine town with its splendid mosques, 
tall minarets, domes, gardens, and cypress trees. It 
stands in a grand position, where the waters of the 
Danube and the Save join. These two blend their waters 
at this point, and the point where the Save joins the 
Danube is clearly perceptible from the brighter colour 
of the latter. The citadel is a commanding object, 
standing on a steep hill one hundred feet high, and 
overlooking the Danube. Belgrade contains thirteen 
mosques and one Christian church of importance. 


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The King's palace, the ruins of Prince Eugene's palace, 
and some other important edifices are the principal 

The young girls in Servia, particularly in Belgrade, 
are very picturesquely dressed in a black bolero orna- 
mented with gold embroidery. They wear a short 
skirt, also trimmed with red or gold lace, and high boots, 
and a round cap edged with gold embroidery, with a 
tassel in the centre. Their hair, which is mostly of a 
very dark shade of black, is worn in two long plaits 
hanging down the back. At the theatre at Belgrade 
the ladies get themselves up in a most wonderful manner, 
wearing all the jewellery they possess, and they are painted 
up to the eyes. A Servian young lady told me that there 
was scarcely a girl in Belgrade who did not paint her 
cheeks even from a very early age. The reason of this 
is probably feecause they mostly have a sallow com- 
plexion, but even if they have not they resort to this 
mode. Count Bourtouline, a Russian, once said to 
me, " I don't care what a girl or woman does to herself 
as long as she looks pretty." I am rather inclined to 
agree with him in a certain respect. 

Belgrade is very badly plastered, and it is not a very 
clean town, and the Servians are not easy to get to 


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know well. The ladies are infinitely preferable to the 
men ; the latter are very deceitful, I found, even in the 
highest circles. The girls and some of the women are 
perfectly lovely ; they possess tiny, regular features 
with beautiful black eyes and long lashes. They are 
very clever at flattery, and one cannot make sure whether 
they are sincere or not. Such is my experience of them. 
Pancsova is a town lower down on the Danube. The 
scenery is uninteresting and monotonous ; the river 
becomes a little broader now. 

The next object of interest is Babakai, which rises 
abruptly from the centre of the river, near the islands, 
and has a rather grand appearance. The origin of the 
name is from the following story. A Turk having re- 
turned home suddenly discovered that the fairest of 
his seven wives had disappeared with a Hungarian. 
This latter retired with Zuleika to a Christian fort, or 
kiosk. He was attacked and killed by the Turk, and 
his head slung to the neck of Zuleika's horse. She was 
sent to perish on a rock in the Danube with these words 
sounding in her ear, " Babakai " (" Repent of your 
sin "). The head of the count gratified the Turk's 
eye by day, and at night the thought that Zuleika was 
perishing on a dreary rock. But the head turned out 

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to be that of an aide-de-camp of the count. Zuleika 
was eventually rescued by the count, and the Turk 
slain in battle. Zuleika afterwards married the count, 
the Turk having been brought mortally wounded to 
the count's tent a day before. 

At Babakai the scenery gets more romantic, with 
rocks and old forests. The castle of Kohmbacz is one 
of the most striking on this part of the Danube. Seven 
towers now remain, and the celebrated Helena of ancient 
Greek history was imprisoned here. In one of the 
caverns St. George killed the dragon, and its body sends 
forth those myriads of small flies which are so torment- 
ing to men and animals. Children have often been 
killed by them. 

Vast forests, high mountains come to view now, till we 
arrive at Drenkova, which has wild and magnificent 
scenery. The most striking point is Greben, a promon- 
tory, which is picturesque ; then comes Swinicza. The 
width of the river is five thousand feet. The most re- 
markable object is the ancient castle of Dreykula, which 
is of Roman origin. It commands a fine view of the 
river. Now we approach the Defile of Kazan. The 
entrance is very good. Its banks rise in masses from the 
edge of the river to a great height, and seem to unite 


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with the sky. There are numberless gardens here with 
lovely flowers. 

The next object of interest is the Rock of Kazan, 
near the centre of the stream, where there is a whirlpool 
of great violence. On leaving Trajan's Tafel the river 
widens, and we arrive at Orsova, where there is a Greek 
church worthy of notice. The Iron Gate is a series of 
rapids extending through a narrow valley. The name 
is derived from the extreme difficulty of the passage, 
and from the iron colour of the rocks which occupy the 
bed of the Danube for three miles. The roar of the 
waters as they hasten through the Iron Gate is heard 
for miles around. The entire length of these rapids is 
seventeen hundred yards. 

Gludova now comes to view ; the country is for some 
time mountainous, and then sinks into a plain. As the 
stream widens the mountains seem to retire on the 
left in a snowy line. Bounding the horizon are seen 
the Carpathian Mountains ; all between appears one 
enormous plain, covered with sand, with verdure here 
and there. Herds of cattle enliven the monotonous 
scenery ; the herdsmen wear blanket-like coats. At 
times one sees flights of cranes and figures going along 
the plains. On the right bank of the river, on a high 


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rock, are the remains of an old castle called Florentin. 
On the shore opposite is Kalafat in Roumania, where 
the Danube is broader, but with numerous islands in 
the river. At Widdin the scenery rather improves, as 
it is more hilly. 

Nicopolis, which is striking and extends along the 
Danube, is surmounted by a citadel, towers, and walls, 
and is approached on the water. There is really no 
scenery on this part of the Danube. Cranes are seen 
among the reeds, or flying in the air. Sistova has an 
ancient castle and numerous mosques and other large 
buildings. The castle crowns a hill, but is in ruins. 

Rustchuk, in Bulgaria, is a fortified town and has a 
striking appearance seen from a distance. Silistria, 
also in Bulgaria, now appears, and near it the Roman 
wall which once extended from the Danube to the 
Black Sea. Numerous flights of cranes pass over one's 
head in this part of the Danube, and enliven the scenery, 
which is far from pleasing to the eye. 

Galeacz, in Roumania, is the next important place, 
full of life, but otherwise not very noticeable. From 
Galeacz to the Black Sea the scenery is most monotonous 
and dreary. The Danube is divided into numberless 
streams, when, after having received in its course 


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the tribute of one hundred and twenty rivers, thirty 
of which are navigable, the Danube empties itself by 
means of seven mouths into the Black Sea. Three of 
these only are navigable, the Kilia, Sulina, and St. 




WHEN on leave from my regiment, which was 
stationed at Murree, in India, I spent most of 
the time in Spain. I travelled to Madrid via Paris, where 
I stopped at the Hotel de Paris on my arrival at Madrid. 
Having a letter of introduction to a Spanish Marquis, 
I paid him a visit, when I was invited to dinner at his 
palace every evening I remained in Madrid. The first 
evening I dined there two daughters of Queen Chris- 
tina were at dinner, as well as the Marquise, her daughter, 
two sons, and several other grandees of Spain. What 
struck my notice very much was that the gentlemen 
began smoking Havannah cigars nearly as soon as the 
soup was served, smoking between the dishes. Every one 
spoke French, now and again saying a few words in 


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I called two days afterwards, when I was asked why 
I had not come to dinner on the evening before, and 
that I must be sure to come every evening, as my place 
would be always laid there for me. I met with more 
hospitality in Madrid than I have met with anywhere 
else, perhaps excepting in Ireland, and I think that the 
Spanish have a good deal in common with the Irish. 
I have heard it asserted in Ireland that most of the 
Irish families in the south of Ireland have Spanish 
blood in their veins, which is due to the period when 
several Spanish vessels came to grief off the Irish coast 
at the time when the Spanish Armada was defeated by 
the English fleet. 

One day, on visiting the Picture Gallery at Madrid, 
where I admired the beautiful Murillos, I remarked a 
very pretty girl who was copying a study by an Italian 
master. On my making some observation to her, she 
answered me in French, telling me she was Spanish and 
belonged to the nobility. She informed me that I might 
serenade her by night under her window, telling me 
where she lived. This young lady, though a Spanish 
girl, had perfectly blue eyes and fair hair, and was seven- 
teen years old. Her grandmother was an English lady, 
which probably accounted for her being so fair ; yet I 


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have seen equally fair Spanish girls having no English 
relations whatever. This young girl could not speak a 
word of English, but spoke French beautifully, and, 
of course, Spanish. 

Speaking about her to the family of the Marquis after- 
wards, I was informed that the young lady belonged to 
one of the well-known families in Madrid, and that it 
was quite the correct thing to do, to serenade her by 
night under her window. I am sorry, though, now to 
have to confess that I did not serenade her. Whether 
it was shyness or English prudery, I cannot say, but 
I have often regretted not having done so in after years. 
This young girl was dressed at the gallery in dark colours, 
wearing the black mantilla instead of a hat. During the 
afternoon, driving in her mother's carriage, she would 
wear a hat which, she informed me, she always obtained 
from London, as English hats, she considered, were far 
better than Paris ones. Her dresses she got all from 

The carnival was then going on in Madrid, and every 
carriage in the Prado had people who were masked inside 
it. I noticed that everybody seemed to drive of an 
afternoon, and if they cannot afford horses to their 
carriage they employ mules, and if not mules, donkeys. 


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I found the climate of Madrid very treacherous in winter, 
the winds being so cold, and generally they blew from 
the east. The inhabitants are all very lively, even on 
Ash Wednesday they continue their carnival festivities. 
The drinks are very pleasant hi Madrid, and not in- 
toxicating ; no alcohol in them at all. The chocolate is 
quite different from that obtained in France, being very 
much sweeter. 

I visited the opera, where they sang in the Italian 
language ; the singers were good, but the orchestra very 
mediocre. As for the theatres in which they give " Zar- 
zuelas," one must be conversant with the language, or 
else it is rather tame to a foreigner. 

I enjoyed the life at Madrid very much ; it was 
quite a novelty for me ; everything seemed so different 
from what I had ever seen before, and the people 
appeared to live more for pleasure than for anything 
else. The ladies, with their mantillas in white lace 
during the carnival and in black -lace at other times, 
had a peculiar fascination for me. I was not so 
much struck with their beauty as with their picturesque 
attire, though some of the ladies of society entirely dis- 
carded the Spanish dress for the most modern French 
costumes, which I thought was a very great pity indeed. 


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I noticed that in Madrid they have many saints' days, 
on which all the picture galleries and public buildings are 
closed, which rather annoyed me, as my stay in Madrid 
was to be a very short one. The Spanish have a peculiar 
way of always putting everything off, and invariably say 
" Mariana ! " (to-morrow), a habit, I regret to say, I 
have taken entirely from them, so much so that I have 
suffered considerably from it ; but it has become quite 
second nature with me, as with the Spanish. Perhaps 
there may be some good in it after all. It is very similar 
to the Russian " Nitshevo ! " which means " It does not 
matter," and is invariably said by Russians at all times. 

On leaving Madrid I proceeded by rail to Cordoba, 
which is altogether a Moorish town, with its celebrated 
mosque, in which there are numberless pillars of por- 
phyry. The town itself appeared very sombre to me, 
having very narrow streets, the houses nearly touching 
each other in most of them, so that the people could 
shake hands from one house to the other across the 
street. The number of beggars there was quite amazing 
mostly children in a semi-nude state, and they were 
remarkable for their very small hands and feet, which 
is attributed to their being of a mixed race, partly 
Moorish in their descent. 


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The cafe I visited in Cordoba was mostly filled with 
men taking chocolate or coffee or some light drink which 
Spain is noted for, and listening to a performer on the 
bandhurria, a kind of guitar, which sometimes is 
played to perfection. Life at Cordoba appeared to be 
a life of idleness, the well-to-do classes basking in the 
sun in the middle of the day, and spending the rest of it 
in some small caf6 houses. A great number of orange 
trees grows about the town, spreading a most delicious 
perfume when the trees are in blossom, which counter- 
acts to a great extent the nasty fumes from the houses 
of olive oil, with which the people habitually cook all 
their dishes, instead of employing butter or lard, which 
are very difficult to obtain in that part of Spain ; whilst 
the butter comes from Holland, which is used in wealthy 
houses, and the milk is the Swiss Nestle tinned milk. 

From Cordoba I took the train for Seville, which was 
a very tiring journey in the night, as the railway carri- 
ages are not very comfortable, and travelling is so very 
slow in Spain. 

On arrival at Seville I stopped at the Hotel de las 
Cuatro Naciones, where there were several English 
people staying for a time. As my intention was to re- 
main in Seville some months, I looked out for a Casa 


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de Huespedes boarding-house, which I found on the 
Plaza Nueva, the finest square in Seville, filled with 
orange trees, which throw out at night and of a morning 
the most delightful and fragrant scent that one can 
possibly dream of. My rooms looked out on the Plaza 
Nueva, and sometimes the perfume of the orange blossom, 
which the Spanish call " azahar," was so overpowering 
that it had almost the same effect upon one as if one 
had indulged in a very strong drink. 

This Casa de Huespedes was kept by three young 
ladies, who, when I first went there, said they would 
undertake to teach me Spanish. The youngest, Manuela 
by name, a very pretty brunette of sixteen, with 
lovely teeth and long hair of a jet-black colour, 
having those peculiarly black eyes which are rarely 
to be seen excepting in southern countries, was un- 
able to speak one word of any other language but 
Spanish ; but her sisters spoke French and English 
fairly well. Manuela began by teaching me the names 
of the parts of the face, and taught me to say all kinds 
of compliments, till I found I knew nothing else. 

Life at this Casa de Huespedes was very agreeable 
indeed, apart from the food, which was detestable ac- 
cording to English ideas, for all dishes were prepared 


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with olive oil, even to poached eggs, which had always 
a taste of the oil. I lived principally upon oranges ; 
everything else tasted very nasty to me. The butter 
was imported from Holland, and the milk was con- 
densed milk, while the bread was very inferior hi quality. 
We sat down generally twenty or more to dinner at one 
o'clock, as there were a good many officers of the artillery 
from the garrison who dined at this Casa de Huespedes. 
The officers were all young. One, a lieutenant, but 
brevet-colonel, of twenty-five, who used to confer fleurette 
to Manuela, and she seemed at one time very devoted 
to him. 

There was an English surgeon-major spending his 
leave at Seville at this time, with whom I visited the 
Alcazar, with which we were both delighted, wandering 
about the rooms admiring the beautiful designs with 
which the walls were covered. We went to see the 
Giralda and the lovely gardens of the palace of the Due 
de Montpensier, and often went to the cathedral, which 
is one of the largest in the world. 

One day I was at the cathedral with a Bavarian 
baron during service, when, feeling tired of standing, as 
there are never any chairs to sit on there, I knelt 
down, when the baron said to me, " For goodness' sake 


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stand up, or you will be struck with a dagger ! " The 
Spanish are very bigoted in their religion, and if any one 
does anything which is not customary at Mass they will 
stab one with a dagger as soon as look at one. 

At the Casa de Huespedes there was an old English- 
man, who had come to Seville purposely to learn to 
read " Don Quixote " in the original Spanish, but 
Manuela used to tease him by trying to make him speak 
Spanish, which he protested that he was unable to do, 
as he was far too old, being over seventy, to speak the 
modern Spanish, and could only with great difficulty 
make out " Don Quixote " in the original old Spanish. 

During the cold weather the patio, or courtyard, of 
every house is not made use of ; but during the warm 
weather the people all sit out there, more so than they 
do in the house. 

When many people come together they invariably 
dance with castanet accompaniments ; sometimes they 
dance the " Seguidillas," the " Sevillana," or the " Fan- 
dango," which is a very pretty sight to witness, as both 
men and women dance with so much elan. Even in 
aristocratic houses this is very much the custom, the 
lookers-on applauding when they dance well, saying, 
" O116, graciosa, muy bien, ol!6, ol!6 ! " to encourage the 
N 193 

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girl who is dancing when she attempts any unusual feat, 
which she often does. 

Some of the people staying at the Casa de Hues- 
pedes went one evening to witness a performance 
at a room in the town in which Spanish dancers 
gave an entertainment. There were, first of all, some 
gipsy girls, who danced the Moorish dance, which 
is generally danced on a table, and the dance consists 
of turning and twisting the body in all kinds of move- 
ments from the hips, and these gyrations seem to please 
the Spanish audience ; -but the dance has very little 
gracefulness in it. 

Afterwards a little girl of ten or eleven, excessively 
pretty, though looking much older than her age, with 
her black hair done up like a woman's, with a number 
of curls round the face, danced with a man dancer " El 
torero y la Malaguena," in which dance she displayed 
all the marvellous art of an Italian premiere danseuse, 
dancing on her points, and making the most dim- 
cult entrechats, battements, pas de chats, which would 
have done credit to a dancer of twice her age. Then 
suddenly she rushed across the room, and, as the audi- 
ence was seated in a circle around her, she had to choose 
some one out of the spectators to whom she could throw 


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her handkerchief, which she held in her hand. She made 
a rush towards me, and before I had time to realize 
what had happened I felt two little hands resting on 
my knees and saw a pocket-handkerchief in my lap. 
Then the little girl darted off again as fast as she had 
come towards me. Turning to some one sitting near me, 
I asked what I was to do, when I was told to put some 
money in the handkerchief, when she would come and 
fetch it. Wrapping up some pesetas in the handkerchief, 
I waited till she had occasion to come to me again. 
After the performance was over I went up to the little 
girl and complimented her on her dancing, when she 
gave me her photograph. 

I often went to see the little danseuse dance of 
an evening, when she would invariably throw me her 
handkerchief, which I filled with pesetas, and some- 
times with bon-bons as well. At times Lola would 
throw her handkerchief at other gentlemen, but 
she never by any chance would throw it at a lady ; 
though so young as she was, she evidently did not think 
much of her own sex. One day I met an officer in my 
regiment, who was on leave from Gibraltar, and who 
had come to Seville for the feria, which was shortly 
taking place after the horse show. 


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During the feria and the Holy Week Seville was 
crowded with visitors. The prices were increased in the 
hotels and casas de huespedes, and several distin- 
guished visitors came to ours. Among them were a 
celebrated German general and a Spanish marquis and 
his daughter. The latter could only speak Spanish, and 
at dinner I was placed near the young girl, so I was 
obliged to talk Spanish to her all the time. The fair was 
a very pretty sight, all the important families in Seville 
taking part in it, and having private tents to take their 
meals in, and also to sell various objects somewhat like 
our charity bazaars. In some of the tents there were 
girls in society dressed in most gorgeous costumes in 
red and yellow satin with white lace, and wearing a 
white lace mantilla, who sold different things, and 
where you were, on knowing them, invited to take 
champagne, chocolate, and coffee, and the girls danced, 
playing the castanets. At most of these private tents 
one had to be privately invited before one could go into 

The horse show was at a different part of the ground, 
where there were only men. This entertainment in the 
tents was generally kept up till a late hour in the night, 
dancing and singing taking place all the while, when the 


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different families visited each other in their tents who 
were acquainted together. 

The religious festival was during the Holy Week after 
the fair, when in the morning some wonderful proces- 
sions took place, which lasted nearly all the afternoon. 
There were several images of the Virgin Mary, which 
were carried in the procession, the trains of the mantles 
being borne by girls ; these mantles were several yards 
in length, and were said to have cost thousands of pounds ; 
some were in blue, others in violet velvet ornamented 
with the most exquisite embroidery in gold and silver 
lace, with precious stones here and there. The pro- 
cession was a very imposing one, and really quite worthy 
of being seen. The remainder of the festival took place 
at the cathedral, where it was very difficult to obtain 
even standing room. 

While the feria was going on at Seville the bull- 
fight formed a chief attraction, the ladies all going to 
it in their white mantillas, wearing all their jewellery 
on this occasion. The evening before the bull-fight the 
bulls could be seen at grass, and people could approach 
them quite near. I went up to one, which almost 
allowed me to touch it, so tame did it appear. The bull- 
fight takes place in a very large open arena, the places 


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in the shade, called "sombra," being much more expen- 
sive than those in the sun. 

At the opening of the bull-fight two heralds on horse- 
back ride into the arena and salute the mayor, demand- 
ing the key of the town in order to let the performance 
take place. On receiving the key on a red velvet cushion 
they ride out of the arena, when several picadores and 
toreros enter the arena, the bull having been introduced 
beforehand. At first the men on foot torment the bull 
with banderillas, striking them into the bull whenever 
they can get the opportunity. Later on the men on 
horseback, whose horses' eyes are bandaged, spear 
the bull as soon as they can get near it. The bull charges 
the horses, which are miserable-looking animals, and 
usually have their bellies ripped open by the bull at 
the very commencement. The picadores have their 
legs well protected, so they rarely come to grief, while 
the sufferings of the poor horses are never much minded. 

I went to the bull-fight with the Bavarian baron and 
the celebrated German general. The latter had com- 
manded a division against the French in the Franco- 
Prussian War. Though he had seen a great deal of 
bloodshed during that war, he told me that his nerves 
were quite upset by this bull-fight, and that he felt like 


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fainting ; therefore he excused himself for taking his 
departure, as he said he could not really see any more 
of the performance. When the bull is thoroughly 
fatigued the picadores and the men on foot with ban- 
derillas disappear, and the espada, or matador, enters 
then upon the scene, dressed in a bolero of red, blue, or 
green velvet, all embroidered with gold or silver lace, 
with knee breeches of the same coloured velvet, white 
stockings, and black shoes with silver buckles. 

On this occasion the celebrated Frascuelo was the 
espada, who brandished a red mantle in front of the 
bull, which the latter very much resented at first, but 
then gradually seemed to get used to, when Frascuelo, 
waiting his chance, plunged his sword at the back of the 
bull's neck till it penetrated through its body ; then 
the bull staggered and fell. The applause at this moment 
was quite deafening with exclamations of joy, especially 
from the ladies in the boxes, who constantly threw 
their rings off their fingers and bracelets to Frascuelo. 
But this throwing of jewellery occurred principally after 
Frascuelo had managed to kill several bulls in the same 
fashion with more or less trouble. Some of the bulls 
were indeed rather troublesome to kill, and in one case 
Frascuelo tried to stand on a chair to put an end to the 


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bull, when the latter overturned the chair, and nearly 
succeeded in piercing the espada with its horns, but, 
agile as Frascuelo was, he only just managed to get away, 
when he renewed the attempt again. At times the public 
would exclaim, " Bravo, toro ! " applauding the bull 
when the espada showed any awkwardness in the matter. 
But Frascuelo was generally pretty sure of his affair, 
and ended by doing what he attempted at first by means 
of the chair, when the ladies in the boxes showed their 
affection for him in the manner already described. 

Some of these espadas make an enormous fortune 
in a very short time. They are generally a Spanish 
girl's and woman's ideal of what a man should be like. 
No tenor at an opera is so fted as an espada is in Seville 
after he has succeeded in dispatching several bulls. 
The number of letters he receives from ladies of high 
rank and girls is something quite astounding, so that 
the wife of an espada has every need to be jealous of 
him. The espadas are usually very religious, and always 
kneel down to prayer before a crucifix at the commence- 
ment of every performance. 

An English officer of a Highland regiment, a friend 
of mine, had some success as an espada in Spain, giving 
all the money he derived from it to the poor there. 


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After I had seen eight bulls killed, and the performance 
was at an end, I went home. 

On my meeting Manuela she inquired if it had not 
pleased me immensely, when I said it had interested 
me very much. She was very enthusiastic about the 
bull-fight, saying it was the grandest sight in Spain, 
and nothing in the world did she enjoy more. I told 
her I thought it very cruel towards the horses. She 
replied they were only old screws that were no longer 
serviceable for anything else. When I said that it 
did not prevent them from suffering all the same, Manuela 
then maintained that stag and fox hunting were equally 
cruel, and that it was merely a matter of prejudice 
and nothing else. " We are accustomed to see horses 
suffer at a bull-fight, and don't pay attention to it. 
You make other animals suffer by hunting them. Be- 
sides, racing is cruel, in a way, on the horses, some 
people say." Manuela said then that she never missed 
seeing a bull-fight, but now she was in deep mourning, 
so could not go to one. During the feria the ladies 
dressed in colours ; at other times most women and 
girls are usually in black, wearing generally the man- 

There were some very pretty girls in Seville, but the 


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beauties are mostly to be found among the common 
people more than among the upper class, for in Andalusia 
most of the ordinary people have some blood of the 
Moors in their veins, which gives them a darker com- 
plexion, perhaps, but also smaller features and very 
tiny hands and feet. The'ophile Gautier says there is 
nothing more charming in appearance than the foot 
of an " Andaluza," which makes even a Frenchwoman's 
foot appear large. 

There are some magnificent houses in Seville, one in 
particular, in which the principal staircase is of the most 
beautiful white marble, being reserved for the ladies ; 
the other staircase is equally beautiful in its way, being 
of black marble, reserved for the gentlemen. This house 
belongs to a millionaire in Seville. 

The Guadalquiver, which runs through Seville, is 
not very interesting, as the country it flows along is 
mostly destitute of trees, and there are few hills, the 
country being very flat indeed. The gardens which 
belonged to the Duke of Montpensier are charming to 
walk in ; almost every tropical plant is to be seen living 
out in the open air, even in winter-time. As these 
gardens are free to the public many people go to them, 
spending a good deal of their time there. Manuela 


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often went to these gardens of an afternoon. This 
pretty young girl, with her lovely features, but rather 
sallow tint, which, however, was made up for by her 
very beautiful black eyes, with long eyelashes, and her 
very white teeth, interested me immensely. She was 
always so lively, so totally different from the nature of 
a young English girl ; even in the greatest adversity she 
could not understand any one being depressed. She 
taught me several proverbs in Andalusian Spanish, 
one being " Obas pan y queso saben A beso," which 
means that "Fruit, bread, and cheese are worthy of a 
kiss." Manuela's constitution was so delicate that 
the English surgeon-major used often to say that she 
would not be able to live for a winter in our English 
rigorous climate. Manuela could not understand the 
English way of keeping Sunday, as she imagined it was 
a day for enjoyment, going to bull-fights or to a theatre. 
She used often to say she was very thankful not to be 
an English girl ; she would as soon be shut up in a 
convent as live in England under such puritanical 
customs on a Sunday. 

One day I went to Jerez for the day with a German, 
who had a letter of introduction to Senor Don Misa, 
the great wine merchant there. We were very well 


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received by Senor Don Misa, who asked us to taste 
some of his very best sherries. One mark, Pedro Ximenes, 
was very good, and he allowed us to taste a sherry of 
1815, the year of the battle of Waterloo, which was at 
three sovereigns the bottle; but it never leaves the 
country, so he informed us. Sefior Don Misa supplied 
my regiment in sherry, and most of the best English 
regiments. Jerez itself was uninteresting, being exceed- 
ingly flat, and no trees there whatever ; simply the 
vine growing very close to the ground, and not as on 
the Rhine, where it is an object of beauty to the eye, 
being trained to grow to a certain height always. Another 
day I went with this German and an Italian to see Malaga, 
with which town we were fairly well pleased. The 
German was bent on seeing the cathedral and other 
churches, closely examining all the magnificent wood- 
carving in them, which I found rather tedious. The 
Italian was always looking out for pretty faces all the 
time, exclaiming at every instant in Spanish, " Que 
bonita ! " There were indeed some lovely girls in 
Malaga, which we all three admitted ; but the Italian 
was far more enthusiastic about them, losing his heart 
at every moment, till we almost despaired of bringing 
him back to Seville. 


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I visited Toledo with the German on another occasion, 
which town, with the exception of the Royal Manu- 
factory of Arms, we found had absolutely nothing 
to interest us. The Royal Manufactory of Steel 
Arms, chiefly for swords and daggers, is one of the 
very best in Europe, and the peculiar way in which they 
work the upper part of the blade, either with gold or 
silver inlaid, gives the weapon a very costly as well as 
pretty appearance. Some of these articles are for sale 
in the Royal Manufactory, but belong to the Govern- 
ment. We purchased two daggers, which were mag- 
nificently inlaid with gold arabesque design. These 
daggers are of so good a steel that we tried to pierce 
a silver coin with them, which we accomplished, running 
the dagger right through it. A celebrated German 
author says, " Aus alten Hufeisen schmiedet man die 
besten Toledo klingen, und aus alten Volksanschauungen 
die besten Geisteswaffen. Das Schmieden ist ein spezi- 
fisch deutches Handwerk ; Siegfried war ein Schmied 
ehe er ein Held wurde." Toledo is the oldest town in 
Spain, and was the only one in which the Jews were 
allowed to reside when they were banished from Spain. 
This accounts for the residents there having more or 
less a Jewish type of face. The town appeared dirty, 


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and the inhabitants were more miserable-looking than 
in the other towns of Spain mentioned. 

One day I went to Cadiz, staying there the night. 
The approach to Cadiz is often compared with that of 
Constantinople, which, according to Alexander von 
Humboldt, is one of the five most beautiful cities in 
the world. The approach to Cadiz is perfectly lovely ; 
seen from a distance the town seems to be built of the 
most exquisitely white Carrara marble, with its minarets 
towering above the houses ; while the sea which appears 
to surround it is of a beautiful sapphire-blue, which 
rivals in its loveliness the sky above, though the 
shade of the latter is more like the turquoise, as it was 
early in the morning ; later in the day the colour be- 
comes more intense in its shade of blue ; then both 
the sea and the heavens are nearly of the same exquisite 
deep blue hue. On entering the town this illusion 
of its colouring is destroyed by certain houses, which 
are very far from the beautiful white colour that they 
appear to assume during the approach to Cadiz. This 
approach can well compare with that of Constantinople 
in its beauty, some people even preferring that of the 
former to that of the latter town. 

I took a room at an hotel and then began to explore 


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the town. On my return in the evening I went up to 
what I thought was my room, when the chambermaid 
told me it could not be my room, as it was let to some 
one else. She asked me for the key, and then told me 
that it did not belong to that hotel at all, but my hotel 
was in quite an opposite part of the town. The streets 
were all very similar in appearance, which accounted 
for my error. However, finally I got back to my own 
hotel safely. 

When some days later I went to Granada the red 
hills and grey rocks struck my fancy, and the elm trees 
with their very massive foliage increased the beauty 
of the scenery, which was such a contrast to the barren 
country I had witnessed hitherto in Spain. I stopped 
at the Hotel de los Siete Suelos, which is situated in 
the midst of very fine trees, and is quite close to the 
Alhambra. The range of mountains of Sierra Nevada 
partly covered with snow is visible in the distance ; 
as a background to the vivid green around it forms a 
lovely spectacle. 

On entering the Alhambra I made the acquaint- 
ance of a young English lady who was married to 
a Portuguese nobleman, and lived in some rooms in 
the Alhambra. She volunteered to show me all over 


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the Alhambra, which attention I very gladly took 
advantage of, as she knew everything that there 
was worth seeing, and could explain it all so well to me. 
The Alhambra reminded me a little of the Alcazar at 
Seville, though it was on a far larger scale, but in the 
same style of Moorish architecture. The Court of Lions 
and the adjacent rooms are really quite exquisite in 
the way they are constructed, and the walls are certainly 
a study in the manner they are decorated, with the 
marvellous blending of colours and intricate designs, 
which impart a magnificence to the tout ensemble almost 
impossible to describe. I almost fancied myself in one 
of those fantastical palaces of the " Arabian Nights," 
especially with such a fair guide as I had, who even 
offered me a room in the Alhambra for a week, if I liked, 
as her guest ; but I was obliged to return to Seville the 
next day. Of an evening I went again to the Alhambra 
and dined with this lady and her mother. Afterwards 
she took me a delightful walk, where I heard the nightin- 
gales sing as I have never heard before or since then in 
my life. Altogether, I took a most pleasant souvenir 
away with me of the Alhambra and of Granada. 

On my return journey to Seville the engine of the 
train broke down a long way from a station, when every- 






[ To face page 208 

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body was more alarmed on account of brigands, with 
which that part of Spain is infested, than because of 
the accident. Some strong men, however, of the party 
managed to get the engine off the line, and another 
engine was procured some hours later, when the train 
started off again for Seville. 

The train left Granada at four in the morning, there- 
fore we witnessed the most glorious sunrise imaginable, 
which would require the pen of a Jean Paul to describe 
in all its glory. The colours which the sun imparted 
to the clouds were of all the various shades of an opal, 
making some of the tiny clouds appear like roses in the 
heavens. But more glorious still, if possible, was the 
sunset at Granada, viewed from a window in the Alham- 
bra, when at times the heavens and all around appeared 
as if on fire ; then gradually the colours became more 
subdued, and every shade melted away from the deepest 
red to the most delicate violet, leaving here and there 
a bunch of roses like those of the " Souvenir de la Mal- 
maison," or " Blanche Laffitt " hi their pale pink nuance, 
which was the effect of the afterglow. 

I was glad to return to Seville again ; it was like 
*home almost to me. I was delighted to see Manuela 
again, and to relate to her what I had seen, when she 
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told me I had seen more of Spain than she had ; but 
she delighted in Seville, and had no desire to leave it 
even for a time. Her elder sisters had been educated 
in Paris and Brighton, and the eldest was engaged to 
marry a charg6 d'affaires of the Spanish Embassy in 
Paris, a marquis. 

The Spanish troops are fine-looking men, but their 
officers seem deficient in that amount of knowledge 
which a German officer acquires. The Spanish officers 
can mostly only speak Spanish, and but very few of 
them have anything but a very superficial knowledge 
of French, not enough to converse properly in that 
language, and they seem more disposed to try to learn 
German than English. Promotion in the Spanish Army 
seems a great deal due to influence and to social position. 
The Spanish military bands are good, but they invari- 
ably play Spanish airs, which are rather wearisome 
after a time. 

A peculiarity which struck me very much in Spain 
is that it is customary when people are out walk- 
ing and you happen to see a pretty girl or woman 
whom you do not know to exclaim aloud, " Bonita, 
graciosa ! " so that she may overhear you. It does not 
in the least matter whether she be accompanied by her 


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father, brother, or husband at the time, nor whether 
he overhears you too or not ; on the contrary, he is rather 
flattered than otherwise at the compliment addressed 
to his relation. 

I was extremely sorry to bid adieu to Seville and to 
Manuela, with whom I associated the place. On enter- 
ing the train some men wanted to enter my compart- 
ment, which I did not succeed in preventing. They 
then tried to converse with me in every possible lan- 
guage till I told them I was a Russian, when they left 
me in peace. On my arrival at Madrid I chanced to 
fall across one of them, who inquired where I was stay- 
ing, and when I replied " Hotel de Paris," the man 
said that there were some of my countrymen staying 
at that hotel. I then said, ** No, I think you are mis- 
taken ; there is not one there." " Oh," replied he, 
" I know there are some Russians staying at the Hotel 
de Paris." "Oh, of course, I remember," said I, re- 
mindful then of what nationality I was supposed to be. 
For the moment I had quite forgotten. 

On travelling from Seville to Granada the train went 
so slowly that a young Spaniard used very often to get 
out of the train at a station, and then wait till after the 
train had left some seconds and run to catch the train 


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up, which he constantly succeeded in doing. The 
Spanish in travelling are very fond of offering a stranger 
some wine to drink or anything to eat they may have 
with them, which they look upon as a great insult to 
them if it be refused. The Spaniard is always very 
proud, no matter to what class he may belong ; even 
the peasants are proud in Spain. A Spanish gentleman 
to whom I took a letter of introduction at Seville from 
a nobleman in Madrid called upon me, and told me 
that during my stay in Seville he placed his house, his 
horses and carriages entirely at my disposal. I re- 
mained only a day or two in Madrid, and then left for 
Paris, en route to England, to rejoin a battalion of my 




TRAVELLING to Nice, via Paris, I stopped at 
Lyons at the Grand Hotel de Lyon. On my 
arrival I felt rather unwell, so I entered a chemist's 
shop. The man at the desk asked me to go into a room 
at the back, which I did, and I found a fat, elderly man 
sitting reading a book. He asked me what was the 
matter with me, to which I replied that I felt excited 
and very nervous. He felt my pulse and shook his 
head, saying, " You are very ill indeed ; you must remain 
at Lyons some weeks, I am afraid. Go to your hotel 
and keep to your room. I will send you some medicine, 
and come to see you there." I was rather alarmed, but 
something told me that I had to do with a quack, so 

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I made an excuse for leaving him, saying I had friends 
outside waiting for me, but I would be sure to come 
back again, a promise which I did not keep. 

In Paris I had visited my doctor, Professor Doctor 
Brown-Seguard, of the College de France, before leaving 
for Nice. He told me that he thought at first I was 
suffering from the same complaint as Lady Mildred 
Beresford-Hope, and that he had seen her the day before, 
previous to her departure for Nice. She had been 
ordered to Nice by one of the greatest and most famous 
of English doctors for an attack of rheumatism, but 
that he (Dr. Brown-S6guard) had discovered that she 
had another much more serious ailment, and that the 
climate of Nice could only accelerate her death, but as 
she had sent on her servants, horses, and carriages, he 
felt it would be almost impossible for her to arrange to 
go elsewhere, and thus he did not dissuade her from 
going there. The doctor recommended my seeing the 
same medical man at Nice whom he had advised Lady 
Mildred Beresford-Hope to consult when she arrived 
at her destination. 

I left Lyons the day after I saw the man at the chem- 
ist's, notwithstanding the advice he had given me to 
the contrary. I stayed at Marseilles at the Grand 


Hotel de Noailles to pass the night, leaving the following 
morning by the early train for Nice. On my arrival 
at Nice I went to an hotel, which Dr. Brown-Seguard 
had recommended to me, situated not far from the 
Hotel Splendide, though not looking out on the sea. 

My first impression of Nice was that it was a very 
clean, white-looking town, the houses being either white 
or rosy pink ; the palm trees on the Avenue des Anglais 
and elsewhere gave the place a somewhat Oriental appear- 
ance, but I was disappointed in the climate. I had 
expected to find it much warmer, whereas it was not 
very much more so than Torquay in winter. It is true 
that the sky was of an intense deep blue, and the sea 
rivalled the sky in its beautiful shade of golden blue, 
mingled with shades of silvery violet and pale green, 
as in some of Bocklin's pictures. At times the sea 
appeared young, fresh, silvery white, silvery sapphire, 
blue, deep purple, gold emerald, and light green, spark- 
ling everywhere like diamonds in the midday sun. 
The mountains had a rosy golden reflection, the houses 
appeared to be dipped in gold and rose colours, and 
everywhere was quiet. The sea danced with lovely 
colours changing in hue as in a kaleidoscope, but more 
quickly, for they seldom remained longer than one 


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instant the same colour. The beauty of nature around 
me made me look at everything through rose-coloured 

I went to see the doctor to whom I had been recom- 
mended by Dr. Brown-S6guard and on asking after 
Lady Mildred Beresford-Hope I was told that she had 
died the day before my arrival from the complaint that 
Dr. Brown-Seguard had told me she was suffering from. 
Lady Mildred Beresford-Hope was only twenty-eight 
years old when she died. It made one think that those 
whom the gods love die young, for she had everything 
that is necessary to enjoy life beauty, wealth, and no 
cares, save this illness which carried her off almost 
without warning. 

At the hotel at which I was staying there were some 
curious people. Among them was an English, or rather 
Indian, general and his wife. The general had retired 
from the service with a pension of one thousand pounds 
a year, but he had a grievance. What Englishman has 
not one ? I know of no one who has not a grievance, 
and it is generally, as the Irish say, "agin the Govern- 
ment." I have a grievance against the War Office, 
which is quite equal to that of Major Dreyfus, but the 
cruelty shown was more refined, and in no way less 


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painful for me. But it would take too long for me to 
describe it in this book. The general ought to have 
been r a peer according to his rights, but to prove it would 
have cost him some ten thousand pounds, which he had 
not got to throw away in law. This was the general's 
grievance, and it annoyed his wife more than it did him, 
for she was a good deal younger than the general, and 
would have delighted in a title, particularly in that of 
countess, which, had her husband proved his rights, 
she would have been. 

The general's wife had golden hair, and said she im- 
proved its colouring by washing it once a week in cham- 
pagne. I don't for a moment doubt her statement, 
but not having golden hair I have never tried the effect 
of washing my hair in champagne. Any lady with 
blonde locks who should chance to read this might 
safely try the experiment, and if she should find that 
it has not the desired effect, well, there is no harm done, 
and she can drink the rest of the champagne, if she be 

The general's wife found the evenings rather 
slow at the hotel, therefore she purchased a roulette 
table, and kept the bank with her husband, which 
was not only very amusing but highly lucrative. 


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One evening the proprietress of the hotel, who was an 
Englishwoman, happened to come in and see us playing 
roulette, whereupon she made a scene and stopped the 
amusement altogether, much to the disgust of the 
general's wife, and of those who had lost and had now 
no chance of retrieving their fortunes; and they were 
rather afraid of the Casino at Monte Carlo. Besides, it 
is a tiresome journey there and back, in one day, for 
people who are at all indolent. 

The general's wife bought her own tea and constantly 
gave tea-parties at five o'clock to her friends, merely 
asking for hot water, milk, and cups from the proprie- 
tress. One day she asked ten people to tea, and was 
supplied with the cups, etc., as usual. At the end of 
the week, however, ten francs were marked down on 
her bill for hot water and the use of ten cups. She 
protested against this charge, but all to no avail ; she 
was obliged to pay it. Afterwards, however, she bought 
her own cups and made her own tea, which was wiser. 
There was a concierge at this hotel, who wore a showy 
uniform of blue and gold, and whose duty was not only 
to attend to the guests' requirements, but also to see 
that no wines, spirits, or liqueurs were smuggled into 
the hotel. At times he would ask the ladies what they 


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carried in their hands, and confiscate the things if neces- 
sary. Most ladies smuggled in wines and brandy in 
their muffs, which the concierge did not often examine, 
though he did so with those who did not tip him 

The living at this hotel was the same as in most hotels 
at Nice not good. There were a great number of dishes 
at dinner, but the quality of the meat was rather inferior, 
and the same menu was often repeated. At one time 
fricandeau de veau was served so often that some one, 
(I am not sure it was not myself) wrote on the menu 
"toujours fricandeau de veau" The proprietress took 
no notice of this remark, but when all the guests com- 
plained to her about the " eternal veal " she calmly 
said, " If any one complains again I shall at once give 
you all notice to leave my hotel." We looked else- 
where for rooms, but, alas ! the hotels were quite full 
and there was no chance of their becoming empty, so 
we were forced to put up with fricandeau de veau, 
and it was served to us now even on Sundays as a punish- 
ment. When any guest was late at dinner a fine of 
fifty centimes was imposed by the proprietress, and 
this sum was marked on the bill at the end of the week. 
I wonder the proprietress did not have us flogged for 


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the benefit of our souls, just as some Methodist did to 
certain girls and women of his chapel, so I read lately 
in the papers. 

Outside the hotel life was pleasant enough at Nice, 
and some of the people at the hotel were agreeable and 
amusing. A German colonel and his wife, whom I 
made the acquaintance of, were very entertaining. 
The colonel served in the Prussian Army, and was 
pleasant but rather formal to people he did not know 
well. I introduced him to the general, who, however, 
could not converse with him, as they knew no language 
in common. Every time the colonel came in the salon 
he bowed very formally to the general and his wife, 
and did the same on leaving, till the general said to 
me, " How long is this bowing and scraping going to 
last ? I must confess I am heartily tired of it. The 
colonel bows every time he comes in the room and when 
he leaves it, and I have to do the same thing, and some 
days he enters the room a dozen times." 

An English colonel I knew was living at the Hotel 
Royal, where my father stayed for a time. I asked him 
how he found the living there, to which'he replied that 
it was the same as everywhere else at Nice not good. 
I told him that my father had said it was not at all bad, 


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whereupon he laughed, saying, "Your father pays for 
the whole pension, but never dines here. He always 
dines at the Hotel de Paris at Monte Carlo, which, of 
course, is excellent." The colonel tried the Hotel de la 
Grande Bretagne, and the Hotel des Isles Britannique, 
but they did not please him any better. A friend of 
my father's, Hamilton-Scrope, who was staying at the 
H6tel Royal, told me that he had been to winter resorts 
all over the world, and that though Nice had its dis- 
advantages, he thought that, taking it on the whole, it 
was decidedly better than any other place concerning 
climate, living, and in every way. 

I belonged to the Mediterran6e Club, which is the 
swell club at Nice, and on a certain evening of the week 
dances were held there in the ball-room. Once I met 
a colonel belonging to my regiment at one of these dances, 
and offered to introduce him to a lady I knew. He 
asked me to show him where she was sitting, which I 
did, and when he saw the lady in question talking to a 
young girl he at once asked me to introduce him. The 
lady I took the colonel to was the widow of a very 
wealthy baronet, who had fifty thousand pounds a year 
of her own, and the young lady was her daughter. The 
mother was still a youngish woman, and was very envious 


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of her daughter. Moreover, she wanted to find a husband 
for herself, so that instead of leaving the colonel with 
her daughter she kept him attached to herself, not 
leaving him for a minute with her daughter during the 
entire evening. The colonel said to me afterwards, 
" I could not get rid of the old lady, for she clung to me 
like a leech. I wanted to dance with the daughter, 
who is young and not bad-looking. I did not want to 
be bothered with the mother." I told him how wealthy 
she was, but this enraged him all the more, for he clearly 
saw then that she wanted to capture him. This lady 
was staying at the Hotel Westminster at Nice. She 
had her own private salon and dining-room facing the 
sea, with a delightful view on the Promenade des Anglais 

The Mediterrane"e Club is a fine building on the Prom- 
enade des Anglais, and its members are mostly of the 
French aristocracy ; the club rooms are very fine, and 
the dinners there are excellent, but rather dear. Most 
of the members play cards for very high stakes, and they 
don't care much for members like myself who never 
gamble at cards ; in fact, it is almost essential for a 
member to play baccarat there. Of course I knew 
several members. The grandson of the Prince de 


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Rivoli Due de Mass6na was one, who told me that a 
friend of his had lost forty thousand pounds one evening 
at cards at the club. Monsieur de 1'Esquier d'Attainville 
was a man of thirty, more English in his appearance 
than French. He said to me once, " You are a man 
who does not require much sleep." I asked him how 
he knew that. He replied, " Because you are of such a 
sensitive nervous nature ; people like you never require 
much sleep." 

I remained several months at Nice. I was there for 
the Fete des fleurs and the carnival, which I saw from 
the Mediterranee Club, with my father and some ladies 
whom I invited there. The Fete des fleurs was very fine, 
some carriages being covered with red and white roses, 
even to the wheels, while others were decorated with 
roses mixed with other flowers, such as marguerites, 
lilies, and carnations. There were some beautiful turn- 
outs with magnificent horses in the Corso during the 
Fete des fleurs. 

A lady I knew very well in Vienna, a Roumanian 
from Bucharest, called Mitsa Michelaexo, who was a 
remarkable beauty and called " La belle Mitsa," had 
a wonderful turnout at the F&e des fleurs at Nice a year 
or two ago with the Prince of Coburg, and took the first 


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prize. This lady, who was about eight-and-twenty, 
had a marvellous figure, a very pretty face, and light 
brown hair with shades of gold in it, and beautiful teeth. 
She spoke French very well, but not a word of German. 
Her dresses were all made hi Vienna. Her brother was 
in the Guards at Bucharest, and a Royal Prince of 
Roumania was at one time greatly attached to her. 

The throwing of confetti is a great nuisance at carnival 
time, for it really is not safe to go out without a mask. 
Some people pelted me with confetti as I left the Mediter- 
ran6e Club, and if I had not slipped a mask on I should 
have been blinded. 

At times the scirocco wind blows, and it is quite 
dangerous to walk out. One day I could scarcely get 
back from the Mediterrane"e Club to my hotel. I was 
nearly blown away. I had to seize hold of a lamp-post 
to keep on my feet ; how I got home I don't know. 

What one feels so much at Nice is the sudden change 
in the temperature after sunset, when the thermometer 
falls some ten or fifteen degrees. Invalids and people 
not strong must be indoors before sunset. The nights 
are extremely cold, and fires have to be indulged in all 
through the whiter evenings. In the hotels wood fires 
are burnt, and not coal. I never liked going out by 

U H 


3 a 

^5 P3 

z < 

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night unless I was obliged to do so, and then generally 
I drove out. 

One week at the hotel the proprietress told me I 
had not paid my bill. I replied that I had, and to 
convince her that I was right I showed her the bill 
receipted, when she said she had forgotten to enter it 
in her book ! 

What I noticed at Nice particularly was that there 
were very few, if any, quite young girls, which is very 
much the same thing as being in a fine garden without 
any roses. I missed the delicious perfume of the " La 
France" rose, the "Souvenir de la Malmaison," the 
"Blanche Laffitte " ; even the " Niphetos " and the 
" Baronne de Rothschild " were not there ; only once and 
again some " Mar6chal Niel " roses and the rose for 
which Nice is famous in the winter months. As Helene 
Jammerich, a lovely young danseuse of the Vienna Opera, 
once said to Baron Marburg, an Austrian lieutenant of 
dragoons : " Der Herr schwarmt nur fur die Jugend ! " 
She said this apropos of a young danseuse at the Vienna 
Opera whom I greatly admired, who had the most 
glorious complexion I think I ever saw in my life, besides 
having very lovely features and blonde hair. 

There is a tea-place at Nice called " Rumpelmayer," 
p 225 

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where very fashionable people take their tea or coffee of 
an afternoon, and if there are any pretty girls or women 
one is sure to see them there. I must confess, how- 
ever, I never saw any remarkable beauties at " Rumpel- 
mayer's," and I went there nearly every afternoon for 
my tea. 

I remember a lovely girl of sixteen, Sophie de Kiesz- 
kowska, a Polish girl, whom I made the acquaint- 
ance of on a steamer on the Danube in after years. 
She was exquisitely blonde, with hair of a divine colour- 
ing of a reddish-golden tinge, that reminded me of some 
of Correggio's paintings of women in the Lichtenstein 
Gallery in Vienna. Her face had the delicate pink-and- 
white colouring of the Rose Marie apple, which is only 
to be obtained in Austria, and is served generally for 
dessert. Her features were most regular; she had a 
tiny mouth and the nostrils of a Greek statue ; her eyes 
were of a sapphire-blue, almost putting the intense 
blue sky to shame ; while her eyelashes were black and 
long, shading her lovely sapphire eyes, which had a 
silvery reflection, and sometimes deigned to glance 
amiably at me when I was talking to her. 

This young girl stayed at Nice with the Comtesse 
Zamoyska, who belonged to one of the best -known 


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families there. Not that I met this lovely girl ever at 
Nice, or anywhere near there, or any one nearly so beau- 
tiful, but when there are no roses to be had one must 
be content with carnations. I corresponded with her 
for some time. She was the belle of Warsaw, and after- 
wards she married a Polish count. When I look at 
her photograph I think to myself how few girls there 
are of such exquisite beauty as hers. 

There were two American girls from Boston at our 
hotel ; the elder was not very young, and had a heart 
not of ice but of stone, and of a very hard stone too 
a flint, I should think, for she always used to say that 
her young sister was sure to die within six months of 
consumption, so it was of no use buying her any dresses, 
or anything. I wonder she allowed her even to eat her 
meals, for the elder sister complained that she was put 
to much expense by her young sister. I sat at dinner 
next to the younger girl, who was fair and pretty, and 
what in Vienna is called " mollett," and what in English 
we should call "plump." 

This girl reminded me of a Malmaison carnation, and 
I always felt a shiver of delight run through me when 
I sat next to her. I am sure she had a warm heart, 
for I felt it sometimes beating as I sat on her left at table. 


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I could have loved this young girl, but her sister always 
asserted that she was going to die in six months, so I 
hesitated. She often spoke to me of Howells' novels, 
praising them, and lent me one of them to read, which 
I liked, for it was less heavy and wearisome than some 
English novels. 

There was a French girl at the hotel who had blue 
eyes like the " bluet," very fine long black hair, and 
small hands and feet. I thought then, with Bodenstedt, 
that " ein blaues auge " was " ein treues auge," but 
since then I have learnt that " ein blaues auge " means 
at times " ein falsches auge." Heine says a French girl 
never really loves, which I am inclined to think is quite 

An English general officer, with his wife and their 
two young nieces, were among the people staying at our 
hotel. The girls were pretty, but rather insipid, and 
had not warm hearts I am positive, for a German officer, 
who sat near them at table during dinner, used to com- 
plain of the cold so much, particularly after talking to 
them at dinner time. 

My father used often to go to lunch with the Marquis 
of Ailesbury and his wife at a restaurant in the country 
about an hour's walk from Nice. This restaurant was 


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close to the seashore, and had a fine view, being rather 
high up. A Pole of the name of Konarski knew the 
Marquis, and appreciated his dejeuners very much ; and 
often Konarski would hang about this restaurant fish- 
ing for an invitation to lunch. Sometimes, however, 
Konarski had his walk for nothing, because the Marquis 
did not invite him. Konarski called himself a count, 
and it was said he had once shaved the Tzar of Russia, 
and thought he had merited the title of count for having 
done so. 

'One day I was walking on the Promenade des 
Anglais with my father when Konarski came up to 
my father and asked him where the Marquis was 
going to take his lunch. My father said : " How do 
you do, Count ? Glorious day to-day, Count. I am 
sure, Count, the Marquis will be glad to see you, but I 
really don't know, Count, where he is lunching to-day." 
After Konarski had gone I asked my father who he 
was, and why he had said " Count " every instant. 
My father replied : "It gives him so much pleasure to 
be called ' Count,' so I do it on purpose to please him. 
Nothing can give him more pleasure." 

At our hotel some tableaux vivants were got up, to 
pass away the long evenings, and also some dances, 


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which were very fade, as the Austrians would say, be- 
cause they were not animated enough. 

I went to Monte Carlo with my father several times, 
and dined at the Hotel de Paris ; the dinner was ex- 
cellent. One day I met a major in my regiment, who 
told me that he had been entirely cleaned out at Monte 
Carlo at roulette, so that he was compelled to return to 
England, and he had telegraphed for some money to 
pay his return journey. 

I knew a very pretty young English girl at Monte 
Carlo, whose mother had a fine villa there ; she married 
an officer in the Guards afterwards, and the King of 
England presented her with a lovely diamond bracelet 
on her marriage. 

Monte Carlo is situated higher than Nice, and has a 
glorious extensive view from the Casino all round this 
lovely fertile country. This delightful view, which 
overlooks the silvery sapphire-blue sea, is one of the 
finest in Europe, and most picturesque. One is per- 
fectly amazed at first at the loveliness and grandeur of 
the tout ensemble. It is so unlike any other place. The 
very fine palm trees in the beautiful grounds of the 
Casino give Monte Carlo a most peaceful, quiet appear- 
ance, which in reality it is not ; and it makes one think 


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that the nations of Europe ought to compel the Prince 
of Monaco to close this hell upon earth, which has every 
appearance of a heavenly paradise with its exquisite 
luxuriant vegetation flourishing in the depth of winter. 
I heard the orchestra in the splendid rooms of the Casino, 
but I was greatly disappointed with it. It is over- 
rated, and instead of trumpets they had cornets, which 
have a dull sound in comparison with the clear sound of 
the trumpet. The orchestra of the Crystal Palace, 
under Sir August Manns, was vastly superior to the 
one at Monte Carlo, and so is the Carlsbad orchestra, 
under the late August Labitzky. Of course, I need not 
name the Philharmonic Orchestra in Vienna, which is, 
in my opinion, the best in the whole world without 

The people one meets at Monte Carlo are mostly dis- 
sipated-looking. It is a place where one always expects 
to be robbed in one way or another. I was always 
afraid of having my pockets picked. Once I entered 
the gambling-rooms with my father, when a man pushed 
me. I seized his hat out of his hand and threw it over 
the roulette table on to the ground. He looked daggers 
at me, and went away in search of his hat. I played, 
but never won in the long run, though once I filled my 


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pockets with pieces, but soon lost them all again. The 
climate of Monte Carlo is better than that of Nice, so 
Dr. Brown-Seguard told me, but the entourage is so 
detestable there. 

Monaco, which lies at the bottom of the hill, is not 
nearly so healthy, though many people stop there, as 
it is cheaper than Monte Carlo or Nice. The rose 
gardens around Nice are very fine, at Beaulieu for 
instance, where some people I know make quite a 
fortune with their roses, which they send to Nice and 
to England. 

Mentone, where many English stay in the winter 
months, some having villas there, is also close to Monte 
Carlo ; but Dr. Brown-S6guard told me that there 
were so many consumptive people living at Mentone 
that the houses and hotels are somewhat dangerous for 
people to live in on account of the infection spreading, 
especially for very delicate people. My father stayed 
there one winter, as it was near Monte Carlo, and he 
rather enjoyed being at Mentone, as the hotel he stayed 
at was filled with nothing but healthy people. 

The shops at Nice are extremely good, and the shop- 
keepers are very polite. The apartments are dear, and 
have to be taken for six months, and paid for in advance. 


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The danger of people losing their money at Monte Carlo 
and not being able to pay their rent afterwards has to 
be guarded against. Many people have their letters 
addressed "Poste Restante," which is not very wise. I 
knew an Englishman at Nice who received a love-letter 
from a girl, which was not for him at all, but for some 
other person. However, the man after looking at the 
letter tore it up, instead of returning it. How dis- 
appointed the poor girl must have been not to receive 
a letter from her lover in reply ! 

The Indian general at one time used to talk Hindu- 
stani at dinner to his wife. One day she said to me, 
" I must beware of telling secrets in Hindustani to my 
husband, as I know you understand everything I 
say." The general had a horror of flies, so always 
flourished about a large red silk handkerchief to keep 
them off. 

An American lady at Nice had a villa, and some fine 
horses to her carriage. She told me she was rather bored 
at Nice after Paris, where she lived. She informed me, 
too, that she had read through three circulating libraries 
during the winter at Nice in the evenings. The Masse"na 
is a good club, but not so good as the Mediterrane'e, and 
there are a great many Germans who belong to it, be- 


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sides Frenchmen. The theatre, which has been con- 
structed in recent years, is an imposing building, where 
operas are sometimes performed by great artistes, who 
come from Paris for the season. Some parts of Nice 
remind one of the streets of Paris the poorer quarters of 
Paris I mean, which are quite different from the fashion- 
able quartier. There is no amusement in the way of 
really good music of an afternoon at Nice, in which 
it resembles Torquay and other English winter resorts. 
The sun gets very hot during April, but I have seen a 
slight fall of snow in March, and even April is sometimes 
cold at Nice. 

A lovely blonde little girl in Vienna, whose Chris- 
tian name was Mizzi, often used to recite the following 
prose poem, on Nice, to me : 


Once I stood by the seashore at Nice and held a 
crimson rose in my hand. Before me lay the sea, golden 
blue, silvery violet, sparkling the quiet sunny sea of 
the south. The soft rocking pearls, emeralds, and opals 
of the waves on the coast wetted my feet, monotonously 
and rhythmically rustling like a harp, over the strings 
of which fingers glide. It was in the spring. White 

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seagulls skimmed the water, at one time lightly brushing 
the surface with their breast, at another time flying 
high in the heavens, like butterflies flying across meadows. 
At a distance a ship was going towards the east, drag- 
ging a grey line of smoke after her. Slowly she 
disappeared from one's eyes in the endless desert of the 

I threw the rose into the sea. 

The waves drew back, and bore it away. 

I saw how it went. At first shining with its crimson 
hue on the pearly foam, then becoming paler and paler 
on the emeralds of the sea. But after a while it rolled 
at my feet with the waves. I only observed that some 
leaves of the rose had been torn away by the current, 
and were floating separately. And again the waves 
drew back, and again they carried the rose away ; but 
after a while the flower had returned with the waves 
to my feet. Yet now more of the leaves had been torn 
away by the current, and they came in separately. 

For a long time I stood by the sea the waves came 
up to me, and withdrew again, and always brought back 
the rose smaller and smaller to my feet, and always more 
of the torn-off leaves of the flower. 

Finally nothing remained of the rose only a handful 


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of leaves, scattered on the waters. And the sea brought 
them to me, continually, continually ... Is it not 
sometimes so with the heart ? Finally it comes to a 
handful of leaves that are scattered about, which come 
swimming to one's feet. . . . 




I WAS advised by Professor von Bamberger, in Vienna, 
to take the grape cure at Meran for severe indiges- 
tion and heart troubles, from which I was suffering. It 
was in the early part of September and the weather was 
glorious, as it always is at that time of the year in Vienna. 
I thought to myself that it would be a pity to leave the 
most charming capital in the world for a place the very 
name of which caused me to shudder. I had heard that 
consumptive people were usually sent there. Moreover, 
I thought that I could eat the grapes in Vienna. They 
are to be had very cheaply, namely, three kilos for 
twenty kreutzers, which in English money is about 
fivepence for six pounds of grapes. With regard to my 
heart troubles, which were not very serious, where could 


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I relieve them better than in Vienna ? Were there not 
the most adorable girls to be found there ? 

I can remember a little girl at the Ope"ra. I fancy 
I can see her now before me ; she wore short dresses, a 
little lower than her knees, and her hair was of a dark 
blonde colour, which at certain times she wore loose 
d la maniere anglaise, hanging down her back, and at 
others done up with the " Gretchen frisur." Her face 
was oval, and she possessed very regular tiny features 
with grey eyes ; her figure was perfect for its size, for 
she was quite a small girl of about thirteen, and she had 
the graceful, stately walk of the Viennese danseuses at 
the opera. This little girl used to do what is called 
" statiren " in grand operas, which means that she 
took a page's part in operas and danced in the ballet. 
I met her once on the Graben and spoke to her. She 
was very amusing in her conversation, and told me 
various things about the opera and ballet, which latter 
was always my faiblesse, as I had written and composed 
the music for a ballet. Sometimes I used to meet the 
little girl in the Volks Garten, when she was accompanied 
usually by her mother. She was considered to be quite 
a beauty at the Op6ra, which is an imperial theatre, 
and to which the danseuses are all appointed by the 




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K. K. Hofintendant, who is always a nobleman of high 
rank chosen by the Emperor, and the danseuses have 
a much higher standing in Vienna than elsewhere. But 
if I were to enumerate all the attractive girls and 
ladies in Vienna I am afraid I should never get to 

It was not till the month of December that Professor 
von Bamberger told me decidedly that I should leave 
for Meran. I went to Meran, not for the grape cure 
for indigestion, nor for heart troubles, of which I 
could have cured myself in Vienna, but for a nervous 
complaint contracted in the service. 

On arrival at Meran I stayed at the " Habsburger 
Hof," as I knew the proprietor, Herr Braacher, who 
possessed a delightful hotel, the " Belle vue," at 
Gmunden, at which I have often stopped for the 
summer season. I asked for rooms facing south, 
when I was shown into some on the second 

" Are these rooms facing the south ? " I inquired 
of Herr Braacher, who himself showed me up to the 
rooms. " Yes, of course," answered he. I looked at 
a compass I happened to have with me ; it pointed to 
the west. I shook it and shook it, but the compass would 


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not move at all from the west. " There is something 
wrong with my compass evidently," I said. " No," 
replied Hen Braacher, laughing. "I have no rooms 
facing the south. All my best rooms face the west, 
but I get so many bothering, fussy people, and I am so 
used to telling them that the rooms face south, that I say 
it more mechanically than otherwise." I stayed at this 
hotel during most of the winter months. The rooms 
were very comfortable, having double windows and a 
good stove, and the living was uncommonly good, in- 
cluding the late dinner. 

Meran is certainly a pretty place. It is like a village, 
and is surrounded by high mountains, rather too much so, 
as the rising or setting sun can hardly be seen no matter 
how one may try to see it. I never rose early enough to 
wish to see the sun rise, but I often longed in my heart 
to see it set, but a bothering mountain always got in my 
way when I made the attempt to do so. For an active 
person (I am not speaking about myself, for I am de- 
cidedly the reverse), there are very charming walks about 
Meran, and plenty of mountains to climb, even with 
snow on them all the year round. I never indulged 
in climbing them. I leave that pleasure to others. 
While I was at Meran there was tolerably good skating 


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until the month of February, when it commences to 
be warm in the sun ; in fact, the spring is supposed 
to begin in February, although it does not always 
do so. 

The Kursaal is not much of a place ; there are a reading 
and a music room, where the Kur Kapelle plays in the 
early morning and of an afternoon. The Kur Kapelle 
is a fair band, and generally has an able conductor. 
While I was at Meran the Kur Kapelle played very well 
indeed a waltz of my own composition, and I went in 
the early morning to hear the band rehearse it. In the 
room in which the band plays there was always an 
unpleasant smell of carbolic acid and creosote, used by 
some of the patients suffering from consumption. Con- 
sequently I rarely entered the Kursaal ; but in February 
the band plays out of doors in the kiosk, opposite the 
Kursaal, and the concerts are well attended. There 
are plenty of nice shady walks, with seats everywhere 
for invalids, for there are no streets as in a town. Some 
people would call Meran delightful in the month of 
February, but I always found it triste d mourir. The 
only time I liked it was when I could sit out of doors 
among the trees on the promenade, listening to the band 
playing. Young children danced and played about, but 
Q 241 

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there were few children at Meran, and these few were 
troubled with lung complaints. 

The dinners at the Kursaal were at one o'clock and 
very fair indeed. They were much patronized, so that 
it was hard to secure a seat. Every one is en pension ; 
even at the Kursaal there are no dinners a la carte ; they 
are all table cThdte a prix fixe. I wrote to my father 
and asked him to come to Meran, but he answered me 
that he had looked the place up in a guide-book, and 
found that there was nothing there but churches and 
convents ; that he did not suppose they would take 
him in a convent ; and as to the churches, it would only 
puzzle him very much to know which was the one he 
ought to go to. 

At my hotel Prince Bariatynski, a chamberlain of the 
Tzar, was staying with the Princess and three daughters, 
and they always sat in the dining-room at a small table 
apart from the others. The Princess was a lady-in- 
waiting on the Tzaritsa, and the young Princesses went 
frequently to the Court at St. Petersburg to attend the 
Court balls. These young girls, who were fairly good- 
looking, used to skate beautifully, cutting figures on 
the ice and skating backwards, as well as waltzing with 
great facility. They did not associate with any one else 


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in the hotel, excepting at times with Count Bourtouline, 
who was a cousin of the Prince Bariatynski. 

Count Bourtouline was a very agreeable man indeed, 
and told me one day that the Prince Bariatynski be- 
longed to an older family than the Tzar did, the family 
dating before the Rurik, and that the Bariatynskis 
were one of the first families in Russia. Count Bourtou- 
line spoke French exceedingly well, but he said that 
there were some Russians who spoke it much better 
than the French themselves, as they spoke the pure 
French of the period of Louis XIV and Louis XV, which 
was now never to be heard in France. Count Bourtouline 
asked me laughingly one day : "Do tell me if it is 
really a fact that your English judges wear those old- 
fashioned wigs in court, and that you still employ the 
Fahrenheit thermometer in England." I informed 
him that this was the case, but he could hardly realize 
it. He asked me whether the Bible was universally 
read in England by young people, and when I told him 
so, he said that in Russia it was forbidden to young 
people, and he seemed astonished that this was not so 
in England. Count Bourtouline informed me that at 
Easter in Russia it is usual to kiss the person who 
happens to be standing nearest to you in church, 

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just after the service, and that sometimes he had 
to kiss some very old women of the people, and at 
other times a young girl whom he had never seen 

Baron Baselli, a general, and a chamberlain to the 
Emperor of Austria, was also staying at the hotel. The 
Baron told the same story over and over again to me 
and to others. I know it by heart, so I will relate it 
as he told it : 

" I was staying at Trieste at an hotel during the 
cholera, when one day I heard a great noise in the room 
next door to mine, so I asked of the chambermaid what 
it could be, for I had never heard such a noise in my 
life. ' It is nothing,' said she. ' What do you mean 
by nothing ? ' ' Why, it's nothing, only a man dropped 
down dead of the cholera ! ' I did not listen to any 
more ; I packed my trunk and left Trieste, and did 
not eat anything until I got into Germany." 

Count Bourtouline would often ask the Baron, with 
a smile, if he had ever had the cholera, when the latter 
would answer : " Yes, I had it once and nearly died of 
it, and when I was at Trieste. . . ." Then he would 
tell this story which I have just related. 

A nephew of Baron Baselli, a young cavalry lieutenant 


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in Vienna, fell desperately in love with a very pretty 
English girl named Kittinger, who was living there with 
some Austrians I knew. She led him on, while she was 
rather fond of a Prince Taxis. One evening Baron 
Baselli called on her, but was refused admission as 
Prince Taxis was there, and the Baron shot himself on 
her doorstep. Baron Baselli had a grand funeral in 
Vienna. The whole affair created an immense sensation ; 
and the young English girl was asked to leave Vienna 
at once. However, she came back after a time. The 
parents of the Baron never recovered from the shock 
this event caused them, for the Baron had ruined him- 
self for this very heartless English girl. 

We sat at dinner at one long table, and there were 
many people at the hotel. One day a man suddenly 
disappeared. I inquired where he had gone, and was 
told by some one that he had left, but it turned out 
that he had died, and as so many people die there 
they bury them in the evening if possible, in order 
that the fact may not be remarked by the other 

It is quite astonishing how many people die of con- 
sumption at Meran ; on the other hand, there are mostly 
consumptive people staying there. One hears people 


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coughing all day long. One poor fellow who sat near 
me at table a fine-looking, nice young fellow, a lieu- 
tenant of the Prussian Garde Kiirassier Regiment from 
Berlin, a man of six feet told me he had got his lung 
trouble on parade, and that he had only six months to 
live. He seemed pretty well, but coughed fearfully at 
times, and drank a great quantity of milk. 

General von Mollersdorf, a Prussian, who was in 
command of the Kaiser Alexander von Russland Kiiras- 
sier Regiment in Berlin, and who was at my hotel, told 
me that it was a mistake to go to Meran before February, 
as it was nearly as fine weather in Berlin, but that 
Meran was a perfectly delightful climate in the early 
spring, when the vegetation began to flourish and the 
trees to have foliage. 

At my hotel a good many Germans arrived who dis- 
approved of the late dinner, so it was put to the vote 
whether we should have early or late dinner. The 
majority voted for an early dinner. I put up with this 
change for a bit, and then could stand it no longer. 
The proprietor, Herr Braacher, asked me to remain on, 
but I left for the Hotel Graf von Meran. 

At the Hotel Graf von Meran, which was kept by the 
proprietress of the Hotel Munsch in Vienna, I could 


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dine late a la carte. A French lady was there who had 
also left the "Habsburger Hof." At dinner there were 
only three or four people. One evening the Princess 
Ardeck, who was a sister of Prince Hanau, and daughter 
of the Grand Duke of Nassau, and always dined of an 
evening at the same time and same table as I did, was 
dining with her son and a very pretty fair daughter 
and a gentleman she had invited as her guest. During 
dinner the Princess asked the French lady and myself 
in French, as we had not finished our dinner, whether 
we had any objection to her smoking a cigar. We said 
that we had none, and she lighted her cigar and began 
to smoke it. 

The Princess was a very agreeable lady, and her 
daughter was really pretty, but excessively naive 
and not very spirituelle. Her mother wished to marry 
her to the gentleman who was their guest, and 
who was very much older than the daughter, but ex- 
cessively wealthy. But one could see at a glance that 
the girl did not care for him at all. The son of Princess 
Ardeck was serving in the Death's Head Hussars, or 
Schwarze Huzaren, of which the Emperor William 
usually wears the uniform and is the Colonel-in- 
Chief ; but the young Prince Ardeck died very soon 


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after I saw him at Meran of a fever while with his 

With regard to ladies smoking at dinner, I was once 
dining at the Hotel Stadt Frankfurt, in Vienna, with a 
lady when two American ladies entered the room. They 
sat at a table to order their dinner, but perceiving that 
two ladies were smoking (one of whom was smoking a 
cigar), they called the head waiter and desired him to 
ask these ladies to leave off smoking while they were 
having dinner. The waiter said : " It is more than my 
position would allow me to do to ask these ladies to 
leave off smoking, for one is the Princess Trauttmans- 
dorff and the other is the Princess Esterhazy." Where- 
upon the American ladies said that they must dine in 
another room ; but the waiter told them that there 
was only the Gastzimmer where the cabmen usually 
dine, and where they decided to go as it was empty 
at that hour. 

Once, while leaving Bozen for Italy, which place is 
only a drive of about two hours from Meran, and while 
I was dining at an hotel there, I made the acquaintance 
of an American. He asked me where I was going, to 
which I replied that I was leaving for Florence. He 
smiled and said : " You are going to Italy, a country 


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where everything is very inferior compared with Austria. 
For in the latter country the living is much better, the 
wine and food are better, the houses are better to live 
in, they are much more comfortable, the people are 
much nicer, more polite, and the women prettier. I 
don't know anything, the climate included, that is not 
much better in Austria than it is in Italy ; even the 
music and the drama are better." 

I had never been to Italy then, and did not know 
what to think of his statements ; but since that time I 
have been several times to Italy, and I must confess 
that the American was a very sensible man, as Americans 
usually are,. They have far more common sense than 
the English, and find out the best places to go to for 
comfort and everything else, and always get their 
money's worth. I have a great admiration for the 
Americans, and generally get on well with them. This 
American was quite right. Everything is far better in 
Austria than it is in Italy. Some people may say that 
in Italy in the winter the climate is better. It may be 
at San Remo, but it certainly is not better at Genoa, 
Florence, Venice, or Milan, for there is a far better 
climate at Abbazia in the whiter months than at the 
four towns I have named. March is the favourite month 


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for Abbazia, and then the hotels are all quite full. 
Abbazia, on the Adriatic, is warmer in winter than 
Meran, which has the same climate as Montreux. The 
American was quite right ; even the climate is better 
in parts of Austria than in some parts of Italy in winter, 
for Nice is in France. 




I HEARTILY rejoiced when my wish to visit Italy 
was fulfilled, for everywhere had I heard the country 
highly spoken of, and when at Seville a German ac- 
quaintance was accustomed to compare the two coun- 
tries, alleging that in his opinion everything was much 
nicer in Italy, this greatly excited my anticipation, for 
I was delighted with Spain and charmed with the pleasant 
winter climate of Seville, as well as with the people, 
and the other towns I had visited. 

On my arrival in Genoa I was much struck with the 
sea, which looked now silvery blue and then pale greenish ; 
it was a very bright day in spring, and the sun shone 
with great power. The houses near the water seemed 
to be very white indeed, probably owing in a great 
measure to the clear atmosphere, and the sky was of 
a sapphire shade of blue, the sun pouring down its golden 


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rays over the town and sea. The ships, with their dark- 
coloured masts and white sails, gave the water a charm- 
ing appearance, for the waves looked more intense in 
their shade of blue when contrasted with the white sails 
of the vessels, some of which were becoming smaller 
and smaller in the distance, till they disappeared al- 

I stayed at the Grand Hotel de Genes, which had 
formerly been a palace, and found many of the spacious 
rooms very comfortable. Genoa impressed me as being 
a business-like town, for looking out of the window 
I noticed many men walking quickly at a certain hour 
as if for their lives. The houses in the interior of the 
town looked very sombre, but there were some exceed- 
ingly fine old palaces, with facades beautifully carved 
in stone. The theatre or opera house happened to 
be closed at this visit of mine, but it exhibited a remark- 
ably fine exterior. 

At the table d'hote I made the acquaintance of Colonel 
Martin, the then Colonel of our King's Dragoon Guards, 
who had been visiting San Remo, with whose climate 
and beautiful scenery he was delighted, while he averred 
the quiet life pleased him better than the gay society 
at Nice. 


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One day I thought I would visit Pegli, a place close 
to Genoa, and its lovely gardens near the sea afforded 
me much enjoyment. A quantity of camellias were 
growing there, and I somehow or other conceived the 
idea that the white ones were reminiscent of the corpses 
of young girls clad in white, and the red specimens 
those of others bleeding to death from some internal 
wound, while the perfume of the orange and lemon 
trees only served to confirm my illusion. The day 
after my return I had a bad sore throat and consulted 
a chemist, but his remedy, being very severe, only 
served to inflame the bad place. When at table I could 
not eat my dinner, though it appeared to be very good ; 
but later in the evening a young Italian count, who was 
A.D.C. to General Marquis de Menabrea, very kindly 
felt my pulse, and told me I had got fever, so had better 
go to bed and take a good dose of quinine, adding, 
" I hope you will then be all right in the morning, but 
if not, send for a doctor." 

The next day I was worse and could hardly swallow, 
so I sent for a doctor, who told me the chemist's remedy 
had nearly given me a kind of diphtheria. I was ill at 
Genoa for three weeks, and during that time thought 
of Pegli and its red and white camellias, feeling myself 


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at times also like a corpse. The pension at the Grand 
Hotel was eighteen francs a day, which I had to pay, 
although I could not eat anything, and, what is more, 
I was compelled to remain there by the doctor's orders. 

From Genoa I proceeded to Milan, where I stayed at 
the H6tel de France, on the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, 
and found more to please me there ; indeed, I have 
often returned to this famous town. With the dome 
of Milan (which after St. Peter's at Rome and Seville 
Cathedral is the largest church) I was quite infatuated, 
for, seen beneath a very blue sky, it appeared almost like 
a dream of marble, so exquisitely white in colour was it, 
while the delicate style of architecture appeared like 
the designs of a piece of elaborate Brussels lace. With 
the living at Milan I was not, however, so satisfied, for 
I did not like the Italian cooking, which reminded me 
somewhat of the Spanish, though it was not, perhaps, 
quite so oily. 

I occupied the same room as Saint-Saens had done 
a few weeks before, and found the city a very charming 
place in the early spring, while I had nothing to com- 
plain of in the climate, which, as a matter of fact, was 
delightful. The pretty public gardens were tastefully 
laid out, and it was pleasant to sit there when the warm 

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weather set in, or to walk under the avenue of trees and 
watch the carriages of the smart residents drive up 
and down from five to seven o'clock in the afternoon, 
before their occupants went to La Scala in the evening. 
It was sometimes quite crowded with well-dressed 
people of both sexes, and there is a peculiar Italian 
custom that when a nobleman walking with ladies of 
his acquaintance happens to meet a danseuse of the 
famous theatre whom he knows he invariably salutes 
her by taking off his hat. This has often been com- 
mented upon by foreigners, particularly English people, 
who seem surprised at the habit. 

There are several very good cafes in Milan, such, 
for example, as the Cafe" Biffi and Cafe" Cavour, where 
the more important Italian and foreign newspapers 
can be read. I always found vermouth and soda very 
refreshing in the summer months, as the vermouth comes 
from Turin, where the best is made, and I think it is 
preferable to the Italian wines. Asti spumante is a 
good imitation of champagne, but not to be compared 
with the latter, as far as excellence of taste is concerned, 
while chianti and barolo are the wines most favoured 
in Italy; but they are very inferior to the French Bor- 
deaux or Burgundies. I usually drank barolo at dinner, 

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and thought it somewhat better than chianti, but I 
cannot say that I ever liked it much. 

During the summer some not at all bad concerts are 
given in several of the cafes of an evening, and on one 
occasion I listened at the Caf6 Cavour to the band 
playing the " Promessi Sposi " of Ponchielli, some of 
the music of which was so pathetic that it greatly affected 
me, though the band was quite mediocre. 

The streets are curiously paved with stones, which 
are rather rugged, and ladies complain sometimes 
that their heels get caught between them, especially 
if they happen to be wearing Louis XV heels. The 
pavement is not raised from the thoroughfare, as 
is the case in England, but is even with it. This, 
however, one soon gets accustomed to, though it 
is dangerous when many carriages are passing too 
near the footpath, which often happens in Milan. There 
is a very fine bronze statue of the great Napoleon in the 
courtyard of the Brera, which is well worth seeing, 
as also is the interior of the building, where can be seen 
the celebrated picture " Sposalizio," by Raphael. 

I stayed at an Italian pension once at Milan to see 
what it was like, but found the food worse than it was 
in the hotel, though I got plenty of amusement for my 

z 5 6 


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trouble. The dinner-table was a long one, and there 
were many German and Servian artists staying there, 
most of them young and studying for the operatic 
stage, while there were also some more or less celebrated 

There was also an old English maiden lady who created 
some amusement by saying that she often went to La 
Scala, but did not approve of ballets. Some one asked 
her why, when she replied, " I hate to see my sex dis- 
grace itself so in short skirts and tights ; but I never 
look at the girls, only at the men dancers." Thereupon 
a young Servian girl laughed very heartily and said, 
" Those you looked at are girls dressed as men." At 
this remark I thought the old lady would have fainted, 
and it is said she never went to a ballet again at La Scala. 
However, notwithstanding her dislike to the costume 
of the danseuse, she was very fond of seeing good dancing, 
and one evening enlivened the company at the pension 
by showing them the step of an English barn dance. 

I may, perhaps, mention here that some years later 
I met the above-mentioned young Servian girl with her 
mother in London, where she had come to continue her 
studies of singing under the celebrated Signor Vanuccini. 
They arrived in the season, but did not much care for 

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the life, everything being so different from Italy and 
their own country, though the novelty at first pleased 
them. Hyde Park and the Row were all they really 

Signer Filippi, the father of the well-known actress in 
London, used constantly to dine at this pension, and 
was considered the best theatrical critic in Italy, always 
writing for " La Perseveranza " his articles on music, 
the opera, and the drama being quite a pleasure for 
any one to read. He was much feared by all the great 
composers, as his opinion was thought to be the true 
verdict on an opera or ballet at La Scala, and no other 
man had so much weight with the singers, excepting, 
perhaps, Hanslick in Vienna, whom even Adelina Patti 
was afraid of at first. This pension overlooked the 
beautiful arcades, which are covered over, and possess 
some very good shops. It is very pleasant to walk 
there on a wet day, and the visitor is reminded of the 
Burlington Arcade, but this one is on a much larger scale, 
being three hundred and twenty yards long, and the 
roof (ninety-five feet high) is very much loftier ; in 
fact, all the rooms in the pension were overlooked by 
the glass roof of the arcades, which are the finest in the 


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La Scala was closed when I went to Milan on my 
first visit, as it usually is in the late spring and summer 
months, as also are most of the other theatres. I often 
walked in the Giardini Pubblici of an evening, and the 
scene was truly delightful, for the magnificent magnolias 
in full bloom spread a powerful perfume all round, and 
the fireflies flying in all directions reminded one of the 
lovely garden in Kandy called Peradeniya, which is 
supposed to be the original garden of Paradise. 

On one visit to Milan I went afterward to Verona, 
where I saw the amphitheatre, which is said to be the 
finest of the Roman buildings that remain in a toler- 
ably good condition. The size was enormous and, 
of course, open, reminding one a little of the Spanish 
arena for bull-fights, though the latter is very much 
smaller inside. Everything else at Verona, however, 
disappointed me, for the streets appeared dirty, and 
the cholera was very bad there at the time. 

I made the acquaintance in later years of the Princess 
Gonzaga, who was the wife of the reigning Prince, and 
they had their palace at Mantua. She was quite young, 
spoke our language beautifully, and always read English 
books novels for preference. The Princess told me 
when travelling in Italy to always take the train on a 


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Friday and choose a first-class carriage, for under those 
circumstances one was sure to be alone or nearly so, 
as the Italians are very superstitious indeed, and rather 
inclined to economy when taking a journey. 

I met her in after years at Milan with her mother, 
the Comtesse Mona Roncadelli, who was as charm- 
ing as her daughter, and when in Vienna I often 
dined at their table. The Princess Gonzaga used to be 
invited to dine with the Empress of Austria, which was 
a very great honour, for Her Majesty only sat at her 
table with royalty, as a rule, at a dinner of ceremony 
at the " Hof Burg," and she was very particular whom 
she invited. 

I was advised one year by Professor von Bamberger, 
of Vienna, to spend the winter at Florence, and stopped 
at different places on the Brenner Bahn. I was charmed 
with the magnificent country through which I passed 
en route, though at times it made one almost shudder 
to look out of the window of the train and see at what 
a height we were above the ravine, which was some 
hundreds of feet below, while sometimes we were on 
the edge of a precipice, and had to go slowly for fear 
of an accident ; but the views were marvellous and 
quite worth the journey. 


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I stopped one night at Botzen, went on to Verona, 
and from there travelled to Venice, where I remained 
at an hotel on the Grand Canal for some days. On 
the night of my arrival I stood by an open window 
talking to an English clergyman and his wife, watching 
the black gondolas gliding by, but I felt the morbid 
sensation that they were carrying off the dead. It 
must not, however, be imagined by those who have 
never been to Venice that one cannot walk at all there, 
for I went on foot to the square of San Marco, where 
I was charmed with the cathedral like every one else. 
The lions by the arsenal looked very formidable in white 
marble and gold, and the pink colour of the cathedral 
was enhanced by the beautiful blue sky, but it would 
be folly to try to imitate Ruskin or Taine by describing 
the building. In the square of St. Marco there is an 
excellent cafe (the " Florian "), where delicious coffee can 
be drunk in the afternoon while listening to a good 
Italian military band. Some very doubtful Russian 
cigarettes are usually offered one by the waiter, and 
these a Russian count used to call " dynamite cigarettes " 
when he asked me to give him one. 

I went in a gondola to see the church of St. Giovanni, 
which is built of brick, but is well worth seeing, and 


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I afterwards visited the church of Sta. Maria Gloriosa, 
also built of brick, but at the same time one of the 
finest churches in Venice. On the Grand Canal I ad- 
mired the various palaces, particularly the Pesaro and 
the Camerlenghi by the Rialto bridge, which I walked 
over, by the way, in the most prosy way possible. I 
mention this for some people who have never been to 
Venice imagine one goes in a gondola everywhere, or 
possibly flies over such obstacles as bridges. 

The celebrated opera house La Fenice was closed at 
the time, so I could only see it from outside ; but the 
building appeared very imposing and well situated, with 
its facade and steps leading down to the water of the 

It is very delightful to hear voices singing at a distance 
on the water at Venice by night, especially by moon- 
light, when the canal sparkles with light in all directions 
and the moon throws a bluish-white reflection on the 
water, giving to it an appearance of crystal, while the 
lights on the black gondolas have a reddish appearance, 
as if they were very large rubies sparkling in the moon- 
beams. These dark craft have always a death-like 
appearance, notwithstanding the voices one hears in 
them, and though the visitor after a while becomes used 


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to their appearance, one cannot help regretting the 
times of the Doges of Venice, when the gondolas were 
gorgeous in bright colours. 

From Venice I went to Bologna, where I stayed at 
the Hotel Suisse, and in the evening walked about the 
town, which seemed to me to be mostly built in the style 
of the cloisters at Eton, giving the place a rather sombre 
appearance. I was much struck with the leaning tower, 
and later in the same evening went to the Teatro Nazion- 
ale, where the opera " Fra Diavolo " was performed. 
The singers did not please me, and I thought of leaving 
before it was over, as midnight was approaching ; but 
an Italian advised me to stop for the ballet, which I did, 
though it was nearly one o'clock before it began. The 
ballet given was " Excelsior," by Manzotti, with music 
by Marenco, and as I had seen the lovely perform- 
ances given in Vienna at the Opera, which are on a far 
grander scale than any of those in England, at the 
Empire or Alhambra, I almost thought it was useless 
to remain. However, I did, and had one of those 
agreeable surprises in life which come at times when 
least expected. 

" Excelsior " as danced at Bologna was quite beyond 
anything I had imagined, for the beauty of the colours 


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worn by the different danseuses, the quickness of their 
movements, the marvellous precision and way they all, 
without any exception, danced on their points (not, as 
in England, on the half-point), and the number of per- 
formers (for two hundred and fifty were constantly on 
the stage at once), gave a splendour to the tout ensemble 
I could hardly have realized if I had not seen it. Then 
the prima ballerina assoluta, Maria Giuri, a fair young 
girl of seventeen, from Trieste, appeared in the midst 
of the corps de ballet, dressed in white gauze, with the 
short skirts worn in Italy, and danced a " variation " 
alone. At times her feet seemed hardly to touch the 
ground, for she danced on her extreme points, and 
appeared to fly through the air like a feather, performing 
the most fantastical and difficult steps, while her pirou- 
ettes and ronds de jambe excited the utmost enthusiasm, 
as she constantly made from thirty to thirty-five without 
resting on the other foot. I had never seen such beauti- 
ful dancing before, and could not take my eyes off her, 
for she seemed to be some fantastical apparition from 
another world, and made me forget everything but her 
marvellous dancing. I met Maria Giuri a year after- 
wards at Mme. Beretta's school for pupils of La Scala, 
when she told me that she was going to create " L' Amour," 



[ To Jace page 264 

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the new ballet of Manzotti and Marenco, at La Scala 
in Milan. 

Mme. Beretta, who was an old lady, told me after- 
wards that she herself had danced in London at Her 
Majesty's with Taglioni, Cerito, and Fanny Elssler ; 
but that none of them could dance like Giuri, who per- 
formed certain steps which Taglioni never dreamt of, 
while she was quite as graceful, if not more so. Giuri 
was decorated by the Emperors of Austria, Germany, 
and Russia on the same day for dancing before them 
at a special performance in Poland, and she showed 
me the decorations, which were all in brilliants and very 

Some years ago I wrote a criticism in the " Saturday 
Review " on Adele Sozo's dancing at the Empire, whose 
style was very fine indeed, but not equal to Giuri's. 
There are very few amateurs de la danse in England now, 
I am afraid, which is the reason why Taglioni, Cerito, 
and Fanny Elssler are still considered to be so much 
superior to our present-day performers ; but this is 
quite an illusion, for there are danseuses still living who 
are far better indeed, only in those days people appre- 
ciated the ballet as it ought to be, while now they are 
more in favour of the English music-hall style. 

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From Bologna I proceeded to Florence, where I 
stayed at the Hotel de Russie, on the Place Manin, for 
the winter months, but cannot say that the city came 
up to my expectations. I was disappointed with the 
general appearance, for it looked more sombre than I 
had imagined, while the climate was disappointing, 
there being very little sunshine on many days during 
my visit. The river Arno was of a muddy colour, the 
houses were all grey in appearance from old age, and 
some of the palaces looked more like prisons with their 
tiny windows than anything else. 

I visited the Pitti, whose picture gallery, it is said, 
is the finest in the world, and admired the paintings 
of Fra Angelico, Perugino, and especially those of 
Andrea del Sarto. But the picture which above all 
others in the Pitti Gallery excited my admiration 
was Raphael's " Madonna della Sedia." No one 
who has not seen the original can possibly con- 
ceive how beautiful the colouring of the golden auburn 
hair and how delightful the expression on the very 
lovely face are. All photographs and engravings of 
this picture give one but a very feeble idea of 
Raphael's most beautiful chef-d'oeuvre. The marvel- 
lous statues in bronze of Benvenuto Cellini are also 


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exquisite, one of the groups representing Perseus holding 
the head of Medusa in his hand always attracting my 
attention when I passed by. 

I also visited the Uffizi Gallery, and was charmed 
with the paintings of Titian and Raphael, while the 
gigantic statue in marble by Michelangelo of David 
was also worth seeing ; but his marble " Night and 
Morning " pleased me very much better. The expres- 
sion on the faces of the man and woman was wonder- 
fully beautiful, and one could look at the work for 
a long time without being in the least fatigued ; 
indeed, the more the spectator gazes at it the more 
he is struck by its great beauty of conception and 

Of the palaces the most beautiful are the Palazzo, 
Vecchio, the Strozzi, and the Corsini. The Lung Arno, 
where the " Corso " of carriages takes place from after- 
noon till evening, was generally crowded in the winter 
and spring, when people drive out to the Cascine, which 
is the favourite promenade. The place is a kind of Bois 
de Boulogne, but not nearly so nice or half so pretty. 
I walked out there one day, and on my return was 
suddenly attacked by a kind of malarial fever, from 
which I suffered more or less all through the winter ; 


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but my English doctor thought I had caught it origin- 
ally while in Venice. 

There were several English people staying at the 
Hotel de Russie, amongst them a lady who played the 
zither very well, her performance on it reminding me 
of the time I was in Austria. Of an afternoon it was 
the fashion to take one's coffee at the Caf6 Giacosa, 
which was very elegantly fitted up, and situated in the 
Via Tornabuoni, the most fashionable street for shops 
in Florence. The charges were somewhat high, viz. 
one franc for each cup of coffee ; but it was said to 
come from Mecca direct, and the cakes and pastry 
there were very good indeed. 

I often went of an afternoon to the Boboli Gardens, 
which were very pleasant in the spring, and, as they 
are situated on the slope of a hill, the view from the 
top is exceedingly fine. I constantly witnessed a sunset 
from the summit, when the whole country around was 
plunged in the most delicate shades of violet, with a 
few clouds in the sky here and there, scattered about 
like roses, of a pale shade of red, the scene making me 
think of the glorious sunsets I had seen at Granada in 

I once went to the Pergola Theatre, where I 


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saw Mile. Clementine de Vere in " Rigoletto," and was 
delighted with her fine voice. I saw her afterwards at 
Milan, where she had sung formerly at La Scala, and 
she now takes a leading part in the Moody-Manners 
company, at present touring in this country. 

I knew a Russian lady at Florence, a sister of the 
Princess Baratoff, who, with her son, used to invite me 
sometimes to their apartment, when the Samovar was 
placed on the table, as is the Russian custom, and the 
lady told me she got her tea direct from St. Petersburg 
at a cost of thirty-five francs a pound ; it is needless 
to say that the beverage, which was Overland China 
tea, was delicious. 

My doctor informed me that Florence was about the 
same climate as Torquay in winter, if anything rather 
colder than the latter place, and, indeed, I found it so, 
especially at night. This may possibly have been owing 
to the fact that the hotel, which had formerly been an 
old palace, had stone floors, and the carpet did not 
prevent one from feeling the cold. 

I left Florence for Milan in March, as I was heartily 
tired of the former place ; but while there I had been 
to Fiesole and admired the drive, the villas, and their 
gardens. In the early spring the carnations, roses, and 


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violets sold in the streets of Florence are beautiful ; and 
I also saw the carnival, but did not think very much of 
it. The cathedral is a fine-looking building, both out- 
side and in, while the new facade is imposing and even 
gorgeous-looking in appearance. 

I wanted to go from Florence to Rome ; but my 
doctor dissuaded me from doing so, as he said I was 
sure to get the fever there, so, as already remarked, I 
left for Milan instead, where I stayed at first at the 
Hotel de France, then tried a pension in the Via Man- 
zoni, kept by a German lady. 

I went to La Scala to see the ballet " Brahma," 
by Dall' Argine, which I had witnessed many years 
before in Vienna, when Bertha Linda danced, and 
the performance at La Scala pleased me very much. 
The dancers were mostly pretty and young ; they 
all danced on their points, and there were about 
three hundred of them altogether. The premiere 
danseuse was Emma Besone, who performed very well 
indeed, though nothing like so well as Maria Giuri ; 
but the corps de ballet was even better than the one at 
Bologna, and there were several well-known dancers in 
it. This theatre is the second largest in Europe (San 
Carlo at Naples coming first), and it has, in my opinion, 


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the best corps de ballet in Europe, certainly better than 
the one at the Opera in Vienna and at the Marie Theatre 
in St. Petersburg. 

During one of the spring visits I made to Milan I 
went to Como, and took the " Vaporetto " on the lake, 
first of all going to Cadenabbia, with which place I was 
enchanted, the scenery and view from the terrace of 
the house I stayed at being delightful. The lake re- 
minded me somewhat of Killarney, though the former 
was on a far grander scale, while the vegetation was 
more plentiful and pleasing to the eye. The climate 
also was much better even in the spring, and the sun 
was very powerful. The sky was of a beautiful golden 
blue, and the lake almost of the same shade, while the 
tiny silvery waves caught the eye from time to time as 
the " Vaporetto " moved onwards through the blue 
waters. Bellagio, in the distance, appeared like a small 
town built of the purest white Carrara marble on a tiny 
island, surrounded by blue water, with the sun shining 
down upon it. 

On returning to Como I shortly afterwards left for 
Vienna, stopping at Botzen and various other places 
en route. 

I studied orchestration of the celebrated Amilcare 


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Ponchielli while at Milan, and whenever he came to the 
Hotel de France one would have imagined a prince of 
the Royal Family had arrived by the way he was re- 
ceived. He was always addressed as Maestro, and I do 
not think that even Verdi was more popular at Milan. 
One day Ponchielli came and asked me whether I was 
going to assist at the " catastrophe " of his new opera, 
" Marion Delorme," which was to be performed for the 
first time that evening at La Scala. I told him that I 
would go, of course, and hoped it would be a great 
success. All the foremost singers in Italy were engaged, 
and I secured a stall for eighty francs, though it was not 
in the first row, those seats costing one hundred francs 
each. The boxes and, indeed, every seat in the house 
were taken long before the day of the performance, all 
the celebrated people of the nobility and fashion being 
present on that occasion. Everybody was in evening 
dress as if for a gala performance, and the ladies in the 
boxes were all decollete, wearing magnificent jewellery, 
the rubies, emeralds, and diamonds on their necks 
glittering and sparkling, and almost equalling in their 
splendour the brilliant illuminations of the Opera House. 
There was loud applause when the composer appeared, 
and also after the prelude, which was splendidly played 


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by the famous orchestra under Faccio, a well-known 
Italian composer. 

Pantaleone took the part of the heroine and sang 
beautifully, acting her role, indeed, very well in this 
highly dramatic opera, which was taken from Victor 
Hugo's play. Tamagno, the celebrated tenor, sang the 
leading man's part as no other tenor could have done ; 
while Adele Borghi was given the page's part, and had 
a charming song to sing. This last-named actress looked 
very handsome in her dress of light blue velvet braided 
with silver, and with her black hair arranged in curls, 
admirably showing off her beautiful face. Notwith- 
standing all these advantages, however, the opera met 
with a lukewarm reception, and was pronounced only a 
half-success. It was perhaps too ponderous, too heavy, 
too Wagnerian (if one may say so) to please Italy ; but 
it might suit England, as there are some charming songs 
in it. 

Ponchielli received eighty thousand francs for 
" Marion Delorme " from Ricordi, the famous publisher 
in Milan ; but whether it was owing to this " catas- 
trophe " or not I do not know, but Ponchielli, poor man, 
died very suddenly indeed. A statue has been erected 
to his memory at his birthplace, Bergamo, in Italy ; 
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and Puccini, the composer of " La Boheme " and 
" Madama Butterfly," owes much to Ponchielli, who 
encouraged him to go on with his compositions, and 
first taught him orchestration at Milan. 

I saw several operas at La Scala, and a very delightful 
ballet called " Gretchen," hi which the prima ballerina 
assoluta was Adelina Legnani, who danced magnificently. 
One of the most charmingly original figures was at the 
end, when all the three hundred danseuses, dressed in 
white ballet skirts covered with violets, suddenly knelt 
down in the form of an immense cross. Then Adelina 
Legnani, dressed entirely in white, danced a pas seul in 
between the cross, while the limelight threw a violet 
reflection on the violets, giving a truly marvellous effect. 
I never saw anything more effective before or since, 
though I have seen some very wonderful ballets in 
Vienna, costing from 10,000 to 12,000 each to mount. 
I saw the ballet " Excelsior " many years ago at the 
Dal 'Verme Theatre at Milan during the spring, when 
Limido, a " star " of the first magnitude, electrified the 
house by the way she danced. She went afterwards to 
Vienna, where the critics were enthusiastic in their 
praises ; but she died quite young in Paris at the age 
of twenty-six. 


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One year I visited Gorizia in the winter, and was 
much pleased with the place that is to say, with the 
vegetation and climate, for the town itself is very dull, 
there being so little amusement, except at the theatre. 
To English people who want a quiet, cheap place in 
the winter with a good climate not, of course, equal to 
that of Nice or San Remo in its mildness I can safely, 
however, recommend Gorizia. 

Abbazia is, of course, the favourite place with Aus- 
trians, but is more agreeable in February and March, 
at which time of the year the hotels are crowded, and 
it is difficult to find rooms. It is a very lovely place, 
being situated on the Adriatic, but is rather empty 
during December and January, probably on account of 
the winds, though doctors in Vienna recommend patients 
to go there for the winter. It is very lively in 
the spring, and there is an excellent club (the Adriatic) 
for ladies and gentlemen, at which one can dine, and 
it is not difficult to obtain admittance. There are, 
besides, all kinds of fetes and amusements, but Abbazia 
is more expensive than Gorizia, and much more fashion- 

Any one desirous of spending the winter where there 
are no winds could not do better than go to Sorrento, 


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the air being full of perfume, and the mountains are all 
around. The place is, indeed, so well protected from 
the winds that the mother of the Tzar Alexander III 
was recommended to go there as the most sheltered 
place in the world. 

Naples, of course, is much more animated for any one 
desirous of enjoying pleasure and life, and the opera 
house San Carlo (already mentioned) possesses some 
not at all bad singers, even if they are not of the first 
class, while the ballet is renowned, though in my opinion 
not nearly so good as at Milan. It is not a place to stay 
at, however, for any one subject to fever; and in the 
old part of the town the streets are uncommonly bad 
and gloomy-looking, though in the newer portion the 
houses are very fine and high. 

The town, which is said to be the most densely popu- 
lated in Europe, is built at the base and on the slope 
of a range of volcanic hills, and rises from the shore 
like an amphitheatre the town, some people say, being 
seen at its best from the water. The cathedral is worth 
seeing, and is one of the most important in Italy, while 
Naples is the second seaport of the country. The sea is 
glorious, particularly at sunset, when it glitters in gold, 
sapphire, and purple colours, while the rock of the 


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Island of Capri appears to mount from the water rosy 
coloured, but veiled by a long shadow ; and the snow 
shines like silver on the peak of the mountain St. Angelo, 
attached, as it were, to the violet-blue and rosy-golden 
peaks of the mountains, which appear almost like waves 
of the sea. At the time of my visit the sky shone in 
amethystine-blue tints, and the place was then marvel- 
lously quiet, the silence being only interrupted by the 
volcano, which hurled its glowing lava upwards, to 
crumble in the air like an enormous firework, and then 
all became quiet again. 




A a child I can remember staying with my parents 
in Brussels in a rather large house on the Boule- 
vard de Waterloo. We remained during the winter. 
The Boulevard de Waterloo is the widest boulevard 
in Brussels ; it is one hundred metres in width, and 
the house we lived in looked out on to a fine avenue of 

One evening my parents took me to the Monnaie 
Theatre ; we had a box, and as it was a gala performance 
every one in the boxes and stalls wore evening dress. 
Carlotta Patti, who was a sister of Adelina Patti, sang 
that evening, but she met with no success, and the 
audience showed its displeasure by abstaining from 
applauding her. A ballet in one act took place after- 

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wards in which Friedberg, a Russian, danced almost 
alone. She made her appearance on the stage dancing 
on her points and holding a gold mirror in her hand. 
She wore a black dress of a very thin material covered 
with flounces of black lace and adorned with glittering 
gold tinsel, the skirt barely reaching to her knees. Fried- 
berg danced on her points in the most marvellous manner ; 
her entrechats, battements, pirouettes, ronds de jambe, 
pas de souris excited the admiration of every one, and 
brought the house down. 

Friedberg was a blonde, a very pretty Russian danseuse 
with a beautiful slender figure. She afterwards became 
a viscountess by her marriage with a rich Belgian vis- 
count. According to the lately deceased great critic, 
Hofrath Hanslick, of the " Neue Freie Presse " in 
Vienna, Friedberg was one of the greatest dancers the 
world has ever seen ; she was famous for her graceful 
" attitudes " and " arabesques." Friedberg entirely 
saved the evening's performance at the Theatre de la 
Monnaie, and it was one at which all the elegant world 
in Brussels was present. The boxes were full and the 
ladies were en grande toilette, which is quite unusual 
for Brussels, where the people rarely dress for the opera 
except on grand occasions. 


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The Theatre de la Monnaie is a small but fine opera 
house, and the boxes and stalls look nice. The build- 
ing itself, however, cannot compare with the opera 
houses in Paris and Vienna. I have been to the Monnaie 
in recent years and seen " Mignon," by Ambroise Thomas, 
very well given. It was followed by a ballet by the 
celebrated modern Belgian composer Blochx, which 
was fairly well danced. The corps de ballet was good 
but small in number, and the premiere danseuse was 
by no means first-rate. 

Brussels is a charming town, and, as many people 
have often said to me, it is a small Paris in its general 
appearance and the life it offers one. I always stop 
at the Hotel de Flandre on the Place Royale, which is 
owned by the same proprietor as the Hotel Bellevue, 
and I can speak most highly of the former hotel as regards 
the comfort of the rooms and the cuisine, which is quite 
excellent ; one could not wish for anything better. 
The manager is obliging and goes out of his way to show 
one attention. I happened to be in rather delicate 
health on one occasion that I was there, so I can speak 
from personal experience. 

Brussels is built on two hills, and is in the form 
of an amphitheatre. The principal street is the Mon- 


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tayne de la Cour, and it has very elegant shops. 
It leads into the Place Royale, a very fine square, 
having in its centre a beautiful statue of Godefroid de 
Bouillon on horseback, executed by the Belgian sculptor 
Simonis. The church of St. Jacques sur Candenberg 
with its six Doric columns is a fine imposing building in 
the square. The Place du Musee at an angle with the 
Place Royale is another smaller square built in the 
last century, and the statue in its centre is of Charles de 

The royal museums of pictures, ancient and modern, 
situated in the Rue de la Regence and Place du Musee, 
are only separated from each other by the Royal Library. 
The ancient museum is situated on the right side of the 
Rue de la Regence facing the palace of the Comte de 
Flandre. The museum of ancient pictures is by far 
the more interesting of the two. The marble Doric 
columns of the Palais des Beaux Arts in the Rue de la 
Regence are very attractive. Two bronze groups adorn 
the wings of the building. Four busts placed over 
the doors and windows represent Van Eyck, Rubens, 
Jean de Bologna, and Van Ruysbroeck. The old museum 
cannot compare with the Paris Louvre, or with the 
galleries of Madrid, Munich, Dresden, or Vienna, but 


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nevertheless it contains some pictures which are well 
worth seeing. The Flemish school is strongly repre- 
sented, some of Jordaens' most brilliant pictures are to 
be seen, and Rubens' war pictures, portraits, and genre 
pictures, some of which are very fine. Snyders, Teniers 
are represented by a few of their very best pictures. 
The glory of the Brussels museum consists in its 
numerous fine collections of pictures of Gothic Flemish 

The Royal Library is a large building which is near 
the Palais des Beaux Arts, and contains a collection 
of manuscripts of the fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth 
centuries, which is one of the richest in Europe ; there 
are Prayer Books containing miniatures of Memling and 
Vanderweyden. The " Rotonde," now the entrance 
to the modern museum, and the salon in which the 
collection of prints is exhibited, is a portion of the 
palace built formerly by Charles de Lorraine. The 
Pare Leopold, near the Place Royale, is one of the finest 
public gardens one can see, with its large trees and 
artificial lakes. In the summer months concerts are 
held of an evening, and are always very well at- 
tended. The band plays out of doors and refresh- 
ments can be obtained during the performance. 


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The orchestra which plays is that of the Theatre de 
la Monnaie. 

There are several theatres at Brussels besides the 
Monnaie the Theatre Royal du Pare, Theatre des 
Galeries St. Hubert, Theatre Moliere, Theatre de 1'Alham- 
bra, Theatre du Vaudeville, Theatre Hamand, Theatre 
des Nouveautes, Nouveau Theatre. Some very good 
companies come from Paris to perform at the Theatre 
des Galeries St. Hubert, where opera bouffe, comedies, 
and farces are given. The Theatre des Nouveautes is 
more of a music-hall, but it is very well worth going to, 
as some of the best artists from Paris are often there 
during the winter. 

Le Pole Nord is a skating-place which is exceed- 
ingly well frequented ; some of the most fashionable 
people go there to skate of an afternoon. The Pole 
Nord is covered over, and refreshments can be obtained 
there, while very comfortable seats are provided for the 
people looking on at the skating, and the place is heated. 
In summer the Pole Nord is a music-hall, and arranged 
as a kind of jardin (Fete. In the Galeries St. Hubert, 
near the theatre, there is a brasserie, where an excellent 
dejeuner d la fourchette can be obtained at a very moderate 


More Society Recollections 

Of the cafes to dine at, I tried the two best. One is 
very good and reasonable, the other more luxuriously 
fitted up, and the dinner served was, perhaps, more 
recherche, but the bill was thirty-five francs for two 
people and we drank only a bottle of La Rose claret. 
I asked the waiter to show me the bill of fare, and dis- 
covered that we might have had the same dinner with 
two extra dishes for five francs each ; of course, the 
waiter was careful enough not to tell me before- 

During my first stay at Brussels with my parents, 
we knew several of the Belgian aristocracy, and among 
these families were two that were quite famous for their 
remarkable beauty the family of the Baron de Tantei- 
gnies, consisting of the Baroness and her daughters, 
three young girls, and that of the Baron de Danitau, 
who had also three young daughters ; the families were 
first cousins. The Baron de Tanteignies had an appoint- 
ment at Court and was always with the King of the 
Belgians. His daughters were enthusiastic skaters, 
and as the winter was a rather severe one, they skated 
every day on the lake of the Bois de la Cambre, where 
I first learnt how to skate. One daughter of Baron de 
Tanteignies married an officer in the " Blues " Royal 


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Horse Guards, and is now a famous rider with the Devon 
and Somerset Staghounds, generally staying at Lady 
Lovelace's fine property in the Exmoor country. 

There are some very pretty women and girls in Brussels, 
and they dress very stylishly. Their way of dressing 
their hair and the hats they wear are of the latest 
Paris fashion. I noticed this during a recent visit to 
Brussels. I came from Vienna, in which city they are 
much slower to adopt the latest style of Paris coiffure 
and hat. 

The English colony at Brussels was a large one, when 
my parents were residing there, and among our friends 
were Sir Richard Puleston and his wife and daughters. 
Sir Richard Puleston constantly dined with the English 
minister, Lord Howard de Walden. At one of these 
dinners an Englishman who was present thought that 
he would take home to his wife a nice wing of a chicken. 
He carefully put it in his dress-coat tail-pocket when 
he thought no one was looking at him, but his neighbour 
at table, seeing the incident, said, " A wing of a chicken 
is nothing without bread sauce," and poured some 
bread sauce into the man's pocket, much to his 

Sir Richard on leaving Brussels sold his horses and 


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carriages to a Belgian, but on returning to Brussels he 
was much surprised to see the Belgian driving about in 
the carriages with Sir Richard's arms ; even the harness 
bore the arms. Sir Richard called on the Belgian and 
asked him the reason of this, to which the latter replied, 
" The fact of the matter is I have taken rather a fancy 
to your crest and arms ! " " Oh, indeed," replied Sir 
Richard, " in that case you may certainly keep them." 
Sir Richard Puleston laughed heartily when he told 
us this story, adding, "The poor fellow seemed so 
afraid that I should deprive him of my crest and 

Brussels is exceedingly hot in the summer. I never 
suffered so from the heat as I did there once in July, 
but in the winter the climate is considered to be rather 
mild, compared with Vienna, and most towns in 
Germany excepting Wiesbaden and Baden Baden, where 
the winter is milder. 

Ostend is a fashionable seaside resort ; there are very 
extensive sands. On my first visit the Queen and 
children of the King of the Belgians (Leopold II) used 
to drive on the sands in a little carriage with four cream- 
coloured ponies. I lived then with my parents at the 
Hotel de Prusse in an apartment facing the sea, which 


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had just been vacated by Prince Orloff, the Russian 
Ambassador. The Kursaal, in which very good concerts 
take place, is a fine building on the Digue, and various 
amusements, such as dances and fetes, are given there. 
The Kursaal has been reconstructed in recent years, 
and is on a far grander scale than it formerly used to be. 
The pier, which originally was a very poor one, is now 
one of the finest on the Continent. Ostend is considered 
one of the healthiest places in the world, but in summer 
it is intensely hot at times, and there are no trees there. 
The only protection against the hot sun is on the Digue 
close to the sands. The Digue is a very fine promenade 
in which are several large hotels, but I can remember 
the time when there was only the Kursaal there. The 
King and Queen of Wurtemberg were at Ostend during 
my first visit. 

One day, a Sunday, a number of people were sitting 
on the Digue under the Kursaal. There were not 
sufficient chairs for everybody, but an Englishman, 
seeing two vacant chairs, at once took one of them. 
A gentleman went up to him saying that the chair was 
reserved, but the Englishman refused to give it up. 
Some one, however, speaking English informed him 
that the chair was reserved for the King of Wurtemberg, 


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whereupon the Englishman looked, and felt, I imagine, 
very foolish, and quickly disappeared from the scene. 

One year the town of Ostend was to play a cricket 
match against that of Bruges, and I was asked to play 
for the former, but on the day of our intended visit to 
Bruges we received a telegram saying that on account 
of the cholera the authorities would not allow us to go 
to Bruges, so the match did not take place. 

Ostend is generally much frequented late in the 
summer by Germans, Austrians, and Poles ; the Belgians 
and English come there earlier in the season. The races 
at Ostend used to be very good, but I have not been 
to them in recent years. Formerly most of the principal 
races were won by Englishmen with English horses. 
Ostend is a nice clean town with many good streets, 
but all the animation and gaiety takes place on the 
Digue and on the sands. The inhabitants themselves 
speak mostly Flemish, and a little French ; the latter 
language they talk with a peculiar accent, and they 
invariably say "septante" and "nonante." The upper 
class, of course, speaks French, but even rich trades- 
people speak Flemish better than they do French. 
Flemish is more taught in the schools than French, 
especially in the schools for the working classes. 


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The Marche aux Herbes is a rather interesting square 
in which vegetables and flowers are sold ; and the houses 
in the Marche aux Herbes are very good for a small 
town. The Belgian aristocracy in former years used 
to frequent Ostend in the summer, as the King usually 
went there. 

Bruges struck me as being a very gloomy place when 
I went there many years ago. It is one of the towns 
which has most 1 retained its appearance of the Middle 
Ages and of the Renaissance. Bruges contains the 
best collection of paintings by Memling. For a de- 
scription of its famous cathedral and church of Notre 
Dame, and church of Ste. Catherine with paintings of 
Memling, I can strongly recommend Rodenbach's cele- 
brated novel "Le Carillonneur de Bruges," which de- 
scribes Bruges and its churches better than any book 
I know of. 

Liege is situated on the river Meuse, and the 
church of St. Jacques there is one of the finest 
churches in Belgium of the " style fleuri," end of fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries, that is to say, the interior of 
the church is in this style and it has no superior in Europe 
in this respect. The church of St. Paul, the cathedral, 
which is also a very fine church, is well worth visiting. 
T 289 

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In other ways the town of Liege did not attract me ; 
in fact, I got out of the train here through a mistake, 
and found I had twelve hours to wait for another train 
to Paris. I heard, too, that the smallpox was raging 
there, and not being able to pass the time agreeably at 
Liege by myself, I took the train, starting three hours 
sooner, for Brussels instead of for Paris. I could not 
hold out any longer in Liege. I have never been there 

Spa is certainly a very lovely little place, charmingly 
situated, with delightful woods all round; and there 
are trees in the grounds where the band of the Casino 
plays of an evening. Spa is situated in a valley with 
the hills of the Spalommont close by, so that in the hot 
summer months there is hardly any wind, and thus one 
feels the heat very much. The principal spring at Spa 
is the Pouhon ; it is good for anaemia, and is somewhat 
like the Franzensquelle at Franzensbad, since it contains 
iron also. Another spring, called Fontaine de la Sau- 
veniere, is said to be effective against sterility, just 
as the Franzensquelle at Franzensbad is supposed 
to be. 

There are some very pleasant rides through the 
woods up exceedingly high hills with ravines on 


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one side ; these would be dangerous were the 
ponies at Spa not very sure-footed and accustomed 
to the hilly districts and precipices quite close. I 
stayed at the Hotel de Flandre at one time 
during my last sojourn at Spa, which was a good, 
nicely-situated hotel with a garden. The apartments 
at Spa have the disadvantage that one has usually 
to find one's own servants. Of an evening the grounds 
of the Casino are very animated. There is a restaurant 
there where one can dine very well, while listening to the 
orchestra playing out of doors in the avenue of beautiful 
large trees. 

When last I was at Spa a very pretty girl, who was 
the admiration of everybody, served at the buffet of 
the restaurant, and once a Frenchman while I was 
having my dinner made her acquaintance, talking to 
her for some time. Afterwards he said to a friend of 
his as he walked away : " Ah ! comme cette fille est une 
vraie illusion ! " I thought to myself on hearing this 
remark how many beautiful things in life are an 
illusion after all, though they may appear perfect for 
a time. 

There is a very good liqueur made at Spa called the 
Elixir de Spa, which is often served at the hotels and 


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restaurants. It is of a lovely green colour. The shops 
in Spa are fairly nice, and there are several which sell 
the famous " bois de Spa," in different kinds of boxes, 
brushes, looking-glasses, etc., all having the wood of 
which they are made hand painted in very vivid colours 
on a light-green foundation ; the effect is decidedly 

The Casino rooms, where formerly the gambling took 
place, are very fine, but they are not to be compared 
with those of Homburg, Wiesbaden, or Baden Baden 
in appearance, either from the outside or the inside. 
I once entered the gambling rooms at Spa during the 
gambling days, and I had not been there five minutes 
before I had stolen from me a small gold Russian ten- 
rouble coin which was hanging from my chain. It was 
evidently cut with a sharp instrument from the tiny 
ring by which it was suspended. I discovered my loss 
only a few minutes after it had gone. 

There are several girls' schools at Spa. I hap- 
pened to know the schoolmistress of a pensionnat de 
jeunes demoiselles, where there were young English 
ladies chiefly. This schoolmistress had formerly been 
a governess in an English nobleman's family in 


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Spa is very healthy, though it is decidedly warmer 
in summer than the Bohemian watering-places, and 
does not offer one as many amusements as the latter 
do, though it is a pleasant place to stay at for the summer 




E\.SA, in Tibet, is at a height of 12,700 feet above 
the sea and is surrounded by hills. Near the 
town flows the river Kyichu (River of Delight). The 
many trees and white houses with flat roofs surrounded 
by turrets, and the temples with golden canopies, 
crowned by the palace of the Dalai Lama, give Lhasa 
a fantastic and rather imposing appearance. Lhasa 
means " God's ground." The city is very nearly circular 
in form, and the streets are wide and straight as in most 
Oriental towns. Lhasa is situated at less than three 
hundred miles from the Indian frontier, but some of 
the roads are very bad indeed. In summer the vegeta- 
tion is prolific, but in winter the valley of Isang Po 
more resembles the hill stations in the Himalaya Moun- 
tains, though sometimes it is as cold as it is in North 
Siberia. The town of Lhasa, like others in Tibet, is 
built much more in the Chinese than in the Indian style. 


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As to the population of Lhasa, it is said to be between 
40,000 and 60,000 inhabitants. 

When I was stationed at Murree in the Himalayas, 
I successfully effected with a brother officer an entrance 
into Kashmir without having a pass, and we had man- 
aged to keep secret our expedition, otherwise it might 
have had disastrous results to us. We determined to 
spend our next leave in the Tibet country. Having dis- 
guised ourselves like some of the inhabitants of the hills 
around Murree with a red turban and the complete attire 
of this warlike tribe, the Pathans, we entered Tibet, and 
arrived after many difficulties at Lhasa. My friend 
could speak the different dialects of the hill tribes of 
the Himalayas, so that we easily concealed our nation- 
ality. Not only was he a good linguist, but he was a 
famous sportsman, and had ventured into some parts of 
the mountains where no Englishman had dared to go 
before, and he had brought home more ibex horns as 
trophies than the other officers of the regiment had seen 
in their lives. 

One peculiarity in Tibet we noticed was that the air 
was so rarefied that there were absolutely no flies in 
some mountainous parts of the country. At Lhasa we 
were much struck with the famous Potala, or Golden 


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Temple. It is nine hundred feet in length, and its sum- 
mit is higher than any English cathedral. It is situated 
on a height towards the northern part of the town, on 
the side opposite to which the river flows. This temple 
has the shape somewhat of a pyramid. It is one of 
the most marvellous buildings in the world, and can 
almost be said to vie in beauty of construction with 
that of the palaces at Agra and at Delhi. This palace 
is built in a series of terraces one above the other, and 
everywhere one sees written on the doors and stones 
the well-known prayer, " Om Mani Padme om." The 
palace, the central part of which is of a bright crimson 
with a golden roof, is built in nine stories, and in order 
to mount these, one has to go up staircases some of 
which are out of doors. They are zigzag and are very 
curiously arranged. The top part of the building has 
been employed from time immemorial as an observatory, 
and twenty astrologers study the stars and draw horo- 
scopes. The Dalai Lama, in whom Buddha is said to 
be incarnate, lives hi the central building on the second 
story, and it is very difficult to approach him. But on 
two occasions he presents himself to the public, reclining 
on a throne of a singular shape covered with cushions, 
in the large audience room. One, however, is forbidden 




On left Princess ZU ISENBURG-BIRSTEIN, bride of Prince Victor Salvator, 

son of Imperial Archduchess Marie Louise of Austria 

[ To face page 296 

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to ask him a question, or to make any request to him. 
I had a great desire to have a special audience of the 
Dalai, as I had heard that Manning, a friend of Charles 
Lamb, had been granted one on several occasions. My 
brother officer, who, as I have already said, was an 
adept at Eastern languages, and knew that Eastern 
people are easily got over by bribery in some form or 
other, managed to obtain this honour for us. 

On being conducted before the Grand Lama I was 
startled to notice that he was a young boy, of ten or 
twelve years old, of very striking beauty. He reminded 
me of a boy I had seen in the bazaar at Agra. I was 
with the Vicomte d'Assailly, a captain in the loth 
Chasseurs a Cheval at that time, and he said that he had 
never seen such a beautiful face, for this particular boy 
had large black eyes, with long eyelashes, which were 
blackened with henne", and his cheeks were artistically 
painted, while his features had the regularity of a Greek 
statue. What struck me the most in regard to the 
Grand Lama was the exceptional beauty of his eyes, 
which had a deep penetrating look, almost some- 
thing superhuman in them. I was all the more 
startled when the Dalai Lama addressed me in 
a language in German, in the dialect of Frank- 


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fort-on-the-Main, that I had not heard since I was 
a child. I imagined that it was a boy friend of mine 
of my schooldays, Baron Vogelsang, who was before 

The Grand Lama spoke to me of my past life, 
more particularly of when I was a boy at school, 
and then he said that what we call time does not exist, 
that it is an illusion like the idea of space. " What is 
a century, a year, a day ? " said he. " You imagine 
that the earth requires one day to turn round on its 
axis ? Take the Equator, divide it into twenty-four 
equal parts, build a house on each of these points. What 
will be the result ? According to your ideas there will 
be an hour's difference in the time hi each of these houses. 
Place these houses ten degrees further north now, they 
will be closer together, but there will be always one 
hour's difference between them. Now place them so 
near the Pole as to form a complete circle, the difference 
in tune won't have changed. If it is twelve o'clock in 
one house, it will be one o'clock in that on the right and 
eleven hi that on the left, and if these houses communi- 
cate together by doors you will be able to walk over a 
century in five minutes. You will also be able to see 
the centuries that have passed in going the opposite way. 


More Society Recollections 

On the other hand, you will be able to stop the time 
and prolong it indefinitely in rushing into the next 
house at the moment when the hour is on the point of 
being over. It will be always twelve o'clock. At the 
Pole itself this exercise would be superfluous, for time 
does not exist there at all. As to what you call mathe- 
matics, they are quite as much an illusion as the idea of 
time. Mathematics are based on a supposition that the 
number one exists, which it does not really. What is 
your number one ? Is it a stone, a tree, an animal ? 
This stone, tree, or animal are not the same thing for 
any two people on the earth, because there are not two 
minds alike. Besides, the stone that you see to-day 
is not your stone of yesterday, for since yesterday your 
mind has changed, however little it may be. Mathe- 
matics are based therefore on something which has no 
tangible existence or one to be denned, and if you con- 
sider them closer you will find they are full of contra- 
dictions, of nonsense and of absurdities. No one is 
contented with his lot, everybody suffers," said the 
Dalai Lama, and then apparently guessing my thoughts 
at that moment, " You do not believe in the eternal, 
true doctrine of reincarnation what can there be more 
evident, nevertheless ? You imagine that your power- 


More Society Recollections 

lessness to remember the former states of your existence 
is a proof of their impossibility ? But can you remember 
the two first years of your actual life ? Nevertheless, 
you lived even before that time. You have a sort of 
idea that you have always existed and you cannot 
imagine a single moment in which you won't exist any 
more. What is called death is only a transition, a part 
of our state in which we pass into another form of life. 
Some people hope to meet one day in another world all 
those whom they love. This forgetfulness of past lives 
is really a good thing for us. What would become of 
us if we remembered all these former existences, illusions, 
vain hopes, follies, crimes ? Every one has enough 
cares, troubles, and delusions in each fresh incarnation 
not to be envious of his former troubles. The past is 
a dream, the present only is real, and the future is nearly 
an illusion. We are always discontented with our 
present condition, and we always hope for a happy 
future in an imaginary time to come. It is always 
to-morrow, in a week, in a year, that we shall be happy, 
but this happy moment never comes, and the desired 
object flies from us afar, like the bird of paradise in the 
legend, flying from tree to tree, enticing us on thus all 
our life like the tomb. . . . No, immortality doesn't 


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exist in the sense of your religion. We shall not awake 
to find ourselves in some heavenly palace one day. 
Our future life will be as we have made it ourselves. 
Reincarnation is not a vain theory, but a solid reality. 
It is not the first time we were on earth ; if it were thus, 
death would suppress us at once for ever. What begins 
with time must end with time. If a certain event only 
had to happen once in time and space, all possible things 
would have happened long ago, for it is eternity which 
lies behind us. The world is not hidden behind a cur- 
tain, there is no doubt, no uncertainty. All this is 
evidence, truth, clearness." 

The audience was at an end. My friend asked me what 
I thought of what I had just heard from the Dalai Lama. 
I answered : " Mein Lieber wenn wir Gott nicht mehr 
begreifen und wo die Wissenschaft aufhort da fangt 
erst der fromme Glaube an." 



Ailesbury, Marquis of, 228 
Alhambra, The, 207 
Andra, Professor, Dr., 23, 31 
Andra, Fraulein Margarethe, 24 
Ardeck, Princess, 247 
Auerbach, Berthold, 23 

Bamberger, Professor von, 92, 
237, 260 

Bariatynski, Prince, 242 
Bariatynski, Princess, 242 
Baselli, Baron, 92, 244 
Bath, Marquis of, 112 
" Bauer als Millionar, Der," 48 
Bavaria, Albert of, 126 

Beresford-Hope, Lady Mildred, 

Beretta, Madame, 45, 265 
Berkeley, Earl of, 14, 1 6 
Bernhardt, Frau, 145 
Bernstorff, Count, 27 
Besone, Emma, 270 
Binz, Professor, 23 
Bismarck, Prince, 24, 95 
Blanc, M., 10 

Bombelles, Countess de, 102 
Borghi, Adele, 273 
Bourtouline, Count, 179, 243 
Brandenburg, Princess, 9 

Brown-Seguard, Dr., 214 et seq., 

Buys, Herr Brandt, 77 

Casapesena, Princess, 92 
Chevet, Mme., 10 
Chwosteck, Dr., 98 
Clerk, Mr. Tierney, 174 
Cumberland, Duke of, 113, 118 

Dahlberg, Dr., 64 
Da vies, Dr. Yorke, 101 
Dechen, Excellenz von, 24 
Desart, Countess, 10 
Dorrien, Captain Fred, 15 

Ebing, Professor Baron Krafft, 94 
Erb, Professor, 41, 53, 64, 66 
Edward VII, H.M., 18, 56, 61. 89, 

Esterhazy, Princess, 248 

Farina, Jean Maria, 29 
Festetics, Countess, 68 
Filippi, Signer, 258 
Friedberg, Madame, 279 

Gargarine, Princess, 66 
Germany, Emperor William I of, 

9. 13. 104 
Germany, Emperor William II of, 


Germany, Crown Prince of, 18 
Giers, M. de, 95 
Goldschmidt, Herr, 12 
Gonzaga, Princess, 112, 259 
Gortschakow, Princess, 66 



Hamilton, Duke of, 68 
Headfort, Marquis of, 12 
Hochberg, Dr. Ritter von, 70 
Holland, Lady, 29 

Jammerich, Hel&ae, 225 
Jeschko, Herr, n 

Kieskowska, Sophie de, 226 
Konarski, " Count," 229 
Konnemann, Herr, 67 

Labitzky, August, 76, 231 
Lama, The Grand, 296 et seq. 
" Landhaus am Rhein," 23 
Legnani, Adelina, 274 
Lenbach, Franz von, 28 
Liegnitz, Princess, 9 
Linda, Bertha, 270 
" Loreli," 32 
Lowther, Miss T., 17 

Manns, Sir August, 77, 231 
Marburg, Baron, 225 
Martin, Col., 252 

Melikoff , General Prince Louis, 66 
Metschersky, Prince, 66 
Metschersky, Princess, 59 
Metternich, Prince, 36 
Michelaexo, Mitsa, 223 
Mignano, Duke of, 112 
Misa, Senor Don, 204 
Mizzi, Beautiful, 94 
Mollerdorf, General von, 246 

Neufville, Irma von, 24, 26 
Nunziante, Marquise, 112 

Orleans, Duke of, 90 

Ponchielli, Amilcare, 272 
Puleston, Sir Richard, 285 
Pulszky, August von, 112 

Reinhold, Frau Devrient, 46 
Reuss XXVII, Prince, 31 
Rothschild, Baron Nathaniel, 36 
Rothschild, Baroness James 
Edouard de, 70 

Saint Juste, Comte de, 166 
Salburg, Countess, 1 1 1 , 113 
Salm Salm, Princess, 30 
Scala, La, 45 
Scheve, Major von, 43 
Servia, King Alexander of, 83 
Servia, King Milan of, 84 
Sozo, Addle, 265 
Steinschneider, Dr., 95 
Strauss, Johann, 57 
Sturm, Jean Baptiste, 35 

Tanteignies, Baron de, 284 
Taxis, Prince, 245 
Tilly, Marshal, 148 
Trauttmansdorff, Princess, 248 

Weber, Fraulein Marie, 24 
Wiedemann, Herr, 94 
Wilma, Tournay, 175 
Windischgraetz, Princess, 113 
Wittelsbach, Otto von, 128 
Wrede, Prince Alfred, 112 

Zamoyska, Countess, 162, 226